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Last AR PDF Update: 2012-07-08

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PG-HQ's Annotated 3rd Edition Rules

Though universally praised as a major improvement over the previous two editions when it was released in 2006, the third edition of the Panzer Grenadier rules has still required its fair share of clarifications and tweaks.

The Panzer Grenadier Headquarters Player's Guide Team led by Alan Sawyer has labored long and hard to transform the venerable Unofficial Guide into this special annotated rule set. Every module of the official 3rd Edition Rules are included verbatim below, along with 5 years' worth of clarifications seamlessly integrated and set off with an alternate color.

All clarifications have been approved by Avalanche Press and are considered canon, should that be the sort of thing that keeps you up at night.

If you have something you would like to add to our annotated rules, Alan is waiting...

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1.0 Introduction

Panzer Grenadier is a series of games simulating tactical combat during World War II. Each game in the series includes many scenarios, allowing players to simulate a number of company, battalion and regimental-level actions.

Each section of the rules is numbered, and paragraphs within each section that discuss important concepts are identified by a second number, like this: 2.2. When that section includes subsections, these are identified like this: 2.24.

When the rules refer to another, related paragraph, they include that paragraph's number parenthetically, like this: (2.2). This helps you find that rule for reference.

1.1 Rules Summary

Here's a quick overview of the game to get you started. Refer to the other rules sections for full, official game details.

Playing Pieces: Each combat unit piece represents a platoon of infantry or tanks (30 - 50 men or 5 tanks) or a battery of guns (2 – 4 guns). There are also non-combat units like trucks and wagons for transporting combat units.

Leaders: Leaders are the most important pieces in the game. A leader piece shows his rank, and has his morale printed large in the center. At bottom left is the bonus he adds to the direct fire strength of a friendly unit in his hex, and at the bottom right is the bonus he adds to the morale of all friendly units in his hex and adjacent hexes. Tanks have their own leaders, which do not appear as separate pieces – players assign tank leaders secretly to individual tank units.

Fire Values: Each combat unit has one or more fire values printed on its playing piece. Each fire value appears as two numbers separated by a dash. The number before the dash is its fire strength, and the number after the dash is its range. Black numbers are direct fire values, white numbers are bombardment fire values, and red numbers on a yellow background are anti-tank fire values. Direct and bombardment fire can harm personnel units. Anti-tank fire can harm vehicles.

Movement Allowance: A unit's movement allowance is printed in the top right corner. This is the number of movement points (MPs) it can spend to move each turn. It costs different numbers of MPs to move into hexes with different types of terrain - see the Terrain Effects Chart for details.

Initiative: At the start of each turn, each player rolls one die and adds his side's current initiative bonus (listed in the scenario rules) to the result. Whoever wins the roll (has the higher total) takes the first action segment.

Action Segments: In an action segment, a player can activate one unit, or a stack of units, or a leader and all units of his type (regular or tank) in his hex and all adjacent hexes, or a string of adjacent leaders in rank order (plus all units with or adjacent to those leaders). Activated units can either move or fire in their action segment.

Moving: Units activated by a leader can move closer to enemy units that could fire on them with a type of fire that could hurt them, and can move into the same hex with enemy units if they start their activation adjacent to the enemy units. Units not activated by leaders can move, but they can't move closer to enemy units that could hurt them.

Spotting: Units can fire at enemy units within range which they can spot. Units using bombardment fire don't have to spot enemy units themselves – leaders can do the spotting for them. Units in clear terrain can be spotted by enemy units up to 12 hexes away. Units in town, woods, fields or hill hexes can only be spotted by enemy units up to 3 hexes away. Town, woods, fields and elevation lines block lines of sight as well.

Combining Fire: Units stacked together can add their direct or bombardment fire strengths together into a larger attack. Units in adjacent hexes can only do this if activated by a leader with a combat bonus.

Direct and Bombardment Fire: The firing player announces the target hex, adds up the fire strength of the firing units, looks at the fire table corresponding to the type of fire they're using, and finds the column whose heading number equals or doesn't exceed the total fire strength of the firing units. He increases or decreases the column used based on the column modifiers listed on the table, and rolls two dice. He cross-references the dieroll with the table column to determine the combat result.

Anti-Tank Fire: Only one unit at a time can fire at enemy vehicles with anti-tank fire (they can't combine fire). The firing player rolls two dice, adds the anti-tank fire strength of the firing unit to the roll, subtracts the armor value of the target vehicle (trucks have no armor so they're considered to have an armor value of -1), and adds or subtracts any applicable dieroll modifiers listed on the AT fire table. If the modified roll is 10 or more, the vehicle takes damage or is eliminated (along with any other units it's transporting).

Assault: Units starting their activation adjacent to enemy units can move into the enemy units' hex if activated by a leader. This initiates an assault, in which both sides fire with all their units in the hex. Each player adds up the direct fire strengths of his units in the hex, finds the correct column, adds any column modifiers and rolls one die for the results. Results affect all enemy units in the hex.

Damage: Combat results can range from enemy units flipping to their half-strength side or being eliminated, to having to make morale checks, to no effect at all.

Morale Checks: To make a morale check, a unit rolls two dice and compares the result to its morale (adding any morale bonus from a friendly leader in the same or an adjacent hex). If the roll is less than or equal to the unit's modified morale, it's not affected. If it's more than the unit's modified morale, it's either disrupted or demoralized. Disrupted units move slowly and fight at half-strength. Demoralized units can do very little. Units which become disrupted or demoralized can try to recover back to good-order morale on future turns. Demoralized units which fail to recover morale run away.

Winning the Game: Victory conditions for each scenario are printed in the scenario book.

1.2 Definitions

Playing Pieces Diagram

Action Segment: The activation of a unit, leader, or stack of units, or a group of units and subordinate leaders under the direction of a single senior leader. Activated units may conduct either fire or movement (3.13).

Active Player and Units: The player conducting the current action segment is the Active Player, and any units he takes actions with in the current action segment are Active Units.

Anti-Tank (AT) Fire: Fire from an individual unit with an anti-tank fire value, against an individual enemy vehicle unit.

Armor Value: A vehicle's ability to resist enemy anti-tank fire. A unit's armor value is printed on the unit in yellow on a burgundy field; higher numbers are better.

Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV): Any unit with a printed armor defense value (even a value of 0).

Armored Personnel Carrier (APC): Open-top AFVs which can transport friendly units. They are combat units which also act as transports, and stack like transports too (three APCs and/or other transports can stack in a hex along with up to three non-APC combat units). They are hybrid units, so they can be activated by regular leaders and tank leaders. Each scenario book defines which units are APCs (usually halftracks and similar vehicles like the British Bren carrier).

Assault: Close combat between opposing units occupying the same hex.

Assault Hex: A hex containing both friendly and enemy combat units.

Bombardment Fire: Fire from weapons using arcing (not aimed) fire, like mortars and most artillery pieces. Bombardment fire affects the entire target hex, which must be spotted (8.0) by the firing unit or a friendly leader.

Closed-Top AFV: Any AFV which is not an APC or open-top AFV as defined in the scenario book.

Column and Dieroll Modifiers: Some conditions change the column used on the Direct Fire, Bombardment, or Assault table, or increase or decrease the dieroll on the Anti-Tank Fire table. To apply a column modifier, go up or down a number of columns equal to the modifier (+2 = go up two columns). To modify a dieroll, add or subtract the modifier to the dieroll. See the fire tables for the column or dieroll modifiers that apply to each type of fire.

Combat Result: A result on the Direct Fire, Anti-Tank, Bombardment or Assault table that forces target unit(s) to make morale checks and/or take step losses.

Combat Units: Units possessing a direct fire, bombardment fire or anti-tank fire value. Unarmed transports and leaders are not combat units.

Control: A hex is controlled by the player whose combat units last occupied it. At the start of a scenario, each hex is controlled by whichever side has combat units closer to it, unless scenario rules say otherwise.

Demoralized: A demoralized unit can't attack because its personnel have lost their will to fight. Units and leaders become demoralized as a result of combat, or may voluntarily become demoralized during their activation if desired (6.52).

Direct Fire: Fire directed at an entire hex spotted by the firing unit.

Disrupted: A disrupted unit's personnel are dispersed, and its movement and firepower values are reduced.

Fire Values: Two numbers on a playing piece, separated by a dash. The number before the dash is the unit's fire strength - the number after the dash is its fire range. Higher numbers are better. Direct fire values are black, bombardment fire values are white, and AT fire values are red on a yellow background. More than one type of fire value can appear on a playing piece.

Fractions: Many game functions require that numbers be halved or quartered. All fractions are rounded up by individual unit. For example, 2 1/2 becomes 3, as does 2 1/4.

Friendly: Units of the same side. For example, all German units are friendly to all other German units, whether they actually like each other or not.

Good Order: A unit or leader which is neither disrupted nor demoralized. All units start each scenario in good order.

Inactive Player and Units: The player not conducting the current action segment is the Inactive Player, and his units are all Inactive Units.

Initiative: Initiative indicates a side's readiness to act. The side with higher initiative is more likely to act first. Initiative can be reduced by combat losses (3.0).

Leaders: Individuals who activate and direct other units. Each leader piece has two sides, each of which represents a different leader. Each leader's rank, morale, combat bonus and morale bonus are on his playing piece.

Movement Type: Units move as one of four types: Mechanized, Motorized, Towed or Foot (5.1).

Movement Allowance: The maximum distance the unit may move in an action segment, measured in movement points (MPs). A unit's movement allowance is printed in the upper right-hand corner. A unit with a "T" in the upper right hand corner on its limbered side (5.62) must be towed to move.

Night Turn: Any turn in which darkness reduces visibility in all terrain to one hex. On night turns units have movement restrictions (5.5) and take a -1 column modifier on the Direct Fire Table.

Open-Top AFV: An AFV with no armor on top, making it vulnerable to step losses from direct and bombardment fire. This includes all APCs, plus other units defined in the scenario book of each series game.

Opportunity Fire: Inactive units firing on a single moving active unit. Since units move individually, only one unit at a time may be affected by opportunity fire.

Personnel Unit: Motorcycles, mortars, anti-tank rifles (ATRs), and all units which are not vehicles, weapons or leaders are Personnel Units. Examples include (but are not limited to) INF, MAR, PARA, CAV and ENG.

Range: The distance in hexes over which a unit may project its fire values.

Rank: The measure of a leader's seniority. From lowest to highest, they are: Corporal (CPL), Sergeant (SGT), Lieutenant (LT), Captain (CPT), Major (MAJ), Lt. Colonel (LTC) and Colonel (COL). Certain games in the series include non-standard rank designations, such as Italian, Waffen SS, Finnish or Hungarian leaders. See scenario special rules for details.

Safe Hex: A town, woods or other hex where a unit cannot be spotted and/or fired on by enemy units with Direct or AT fire (whichever fire type could hurt it). Demoralized units which fail to recover morale must flee toward the closest safe hex (14.31), or remain in the safe hex if they start their activation there (14.32).

Spotting: The act of visually sighting enemy units. All units can spot enemy units in the same or adjacent hexes. Beyond this, spotting range depends on terrain, weather, and other factors (8.1).

Steps: Most combat units have two strength levels. Each strength level is called a "step." Units can lose steps in many ways, usually in combat. When a unit loses a step, flip its piece to its reduced side or remove it from the board if it has only one step or is already on its reduced side. Unless scenario instructions say otherwise, set units up at full strength.

Transport Units: Vehicles used to transport personnel units and leaders, or tow crew-served weapons. This includes wagons, trucks and sledges. APCs are combat units which can act as transports as well (4.3).

Weapon Units: Anti-tank, artillery or anti-aircraft units, most of which need to be towed by a transport unit to move (5.6).

Must be ready to fight.

Demoralized units cannot control hexes.

2.0 Components
2.1 Playing Pieces

Most of the playing pieces represent military units that took part in actions covered by the game series. Others are markers which represent fortifications, smoke and minefields, indicate morale status, or show that units have moved or fired this turn.

2.2 Game Boards

The boards are divided into hexagons (called hexes) which are used like squares on a chessboard. Each hex is numbered to aid in setting up pieces. The map also shows important terrain features. The Terrain Effects Chart (TEC) shows how terrain affects movement and combat. Half-hexes on the board edges may be used (they are "playable"). Hexes on two boards are considered to be on both boards for set up and victory purposes.

2.4 Scale

Each turn represents fifteen minutes of real time. Each hex is 200 meters across. Units represent infantry platoons (15-40 men), crew-served weapon batteries and platoons (16-28 men and 2-4 weapons) and vehicle platoons (3-5 vehicles). Leaders represent individuals, and aircraft represent 3 to 12 aircraft.

2.3 Scenarios

Scenario set up instructions (in the scenario books) list the units of both sides, where they are set up, the game boards used and their orientations, historical background, victory conditions, and special rules for scenarios or games.

3.0 Sequence of Play

After selecting a scenario, players set up their units per the scenario instructions. Each player undertakes "actions" in a varying number of "action segments."

Each turn consists of three phases which must be conducted in this order:

A) Initiative Determination Phase

Each player rolls one die and adds his or her current Initiative (found in the scenario instructions) to the result. The player with the higher total wins the initiative. Re-roll ties.

Subtract the losing player's total from the winner's total and divide the difference by two. This is the number of action segments (3.1) the winning player conducts before the losing player can take any actions (round 1/2 up to 1).

Example: Player A (Initiative 4) rolls a 5 for a total of 9. Player B (Initiative 2) rolls a 3 for a total of 5. Player A wins initiative by 4, and can take two action segments before Player B takes one.

A player's initiative normally falls when his units take a certain number of step losses, but it can never go below zero.

B) Action Phase

The player who won initiative conducts the number of action segments (3.1) determined in the Initiative Determination Phase. Then the other player conducts one action segment. Then players alternate, conducting one action segment each for as long as it takes to complete the turn. Players may pass and not activate any units in a segment if desired. If one player passes and the other passes immediately afterward, the turn ends. A player cannot pass if he has demoralized, unactivated leaders or units on the board. He must use his action segment to attempt to recover morale (14.4) for at least one demoralized leader or unit.

C) Marker Removal Phase

Remove all "MOVED/FIRED" markers from the board and attempt to remove "SMOKE" markers (16.1).

Initiative activation calculation

All fractions from initiative calculation are rounded up.

Example: Germans roll 7, Soviets roll 4 = +3 to Germany. Divide this by 2 = +1.5 to Germany, round this up = 2 activations for Germany prior to the Soviet Union's first.

3.1 Action Segments

An action segment consists of any one of the following:

  • A single unit or leader self-activating;

  • All units stacked together in the same hex activating at once, with or without leaders. If any regular leaders or tank leaders are in the stack, they may activate and direct the units in the stack for movement and combat purposes, plus units and subordinate leaders in adjacent hexes;

  • A single leader activating and directing all units in his hex plus the six hexes adjacent to him;

  • A single leader activating and directing a chain of units and lower-ranking leaders in several hexes through subordinate activation (3.2).

3.11 Individual Units and Stacks

An individual unit may activate with or without the assistance of a leader. An individual stack (everything that's stacked together in one hex) may also activate with or without the assistance of a leader, no matter what types of units are in the stack. Units that activate without leaders can't move closer to enemy units that can harm them with Direct or AT fire (5.4).

If a leader is in a stack that activates, then he can activate himself, all units of his type (either AFV or non-AFV), and all subordinate leaders in the stack and all six adjacent hexes for movement and combat purposes.

Units activated by a leader can take all actions without restriction (3.13), including moving closer to enemy units that could harm them (5.4).

Previously activated units

Previously activated unit(s) do not affect any unactivated units in the same hex.

Units activated by a leader

A unit(s) activated by a leader are not required to move with the activating leader.

Stack activations

It is not necessary to activate all units in a stack on any given activation.

Number of activations in a combined stack

When a stack of infantry and armor activates it counts as one activation.

3.12 Leaders and Activation

A good-order leader may activate units and lower-ranking leaders in his hex plus all six hexes adjacent to him. A disrupted leader may only activate units and lower-ranking leaders in his own hex. A demoralized leader cannot activate anybody.

A leader may activate units and subordinate leaders regardless of whether he activates on his own or as part of a stack.

A leader may only activate units at the beginning of his activation (he may not move and then activate units he was not with or adjacent to before moving).

Leader activation

Unless noted in the game or scenario's special rules, leaders may activate units of any other branches (ex: Soviet Guards vs. RKKA) of the same country's military.

Leaders activating units

Leaders are not required to activate all units in their hex or adjacent hexes. Subordinate activation (3.2) is always voluntary.

3.13 Unit Actions

The activated unit, leader or group performs actions in no specific order, but all actions must be designated before the first is performed. Actions are either Movement or Fire. Players do not need to pre-designate directions or targets - they just state which units will move and which will fire this action segment.

"Movement" includes moving (5.0), digging-in (16.2), limbering/unlimbering (5.63) or attempting to recover morale (14.4). "Fire" includes direct fire (10.0), bombardment (9.0), anti-tank fire (11.0) and assault (12.0, even though initiating or joining an assault involves moving one hex).

Once units are done moving and firing, mark them with "MOVED/FIRED" markers. Units marked with "MOVED/FIRED" markers may not activate again in the current turn except through Random Events (17.5).

3.14 Offboard Artillery and Air Support

Firing one or more offboard artillery factors (9.2) or attacking with aircraft units (15.1) constitutes a complete action segment. No units on the map may activate in the same action segment when offboard artillery fires or air units attack.

3.15 Opportunity Fire

The inactive player may be able to conduct Opportunity Fire (13.0) against moving active units during the active player's action segment.

3.2 Subordinate Activation

A leader can activate other, lower-ranking leaders (but NOT same- or higher-ranking leaders) in his hex and the six hexes adjacent to him. Those leaders may in turn activate units in their hexes and adjacent hexes, plus leaders in those hexes who are of lower rank than they are. This all happens in the same action segment, and all leaders and units so activated may move and fire normally.

Thus an activated MAJ can activate a LT in an adjacent hex, and the LT can activate a SGT in a third hex adjacent to the LT. If planned carefully, leaders and units spread over a large front may all be activated in the same activation segment, due to the activation of a single senior commander.

Tank Leaders (3.3) have no rank, so they cannot activate other leaders (including other tank leaders) through subordinate activation. So, when a tank leader activates, only the AFVs in his hex and the six adjacent hexes may activate.

Adjacent activations

When a stack of infantry and armor activates, their activations all happen on the same action segment. So do the activations of any other units and/or leaders in hexes adjacent to the activating stack that are activated by any leaders in the activating stack, plus any other units and/or leaders activated through subordinate activation. They all activate on the same action segment.

3.3 AFV Activation

AFVs have their own leaders, called Tank Leaders. Tank Leaders do not appear as separate pieces like regular leaders do – players assign tank leaders secretly to individual tank units (6.8).

3.31 Tank Leader Abilities

Tank leaders activate and direct AFVs, just like regular leaders activate and direct non-AFV units. However, tank leaders have no rank, so they can't activate other tank leaders or regular leaders through Subordinate Activation (3.2).

Each tank leader can activate all AFVs in his hex plus the six hexes adjacent to him (whether or not those other AFVs contain tank leaders). Tank leaders can direct AFVs to perform all types of actions (3.13).

3.32 Tank Leader Limitations

Tank leaders cannot activate or direct non-AFV units or regular leaders. However, any non-AFV units or regular leaders stacked in the tank leader's hex can activate at the same time as the tank leader if the stack self-activates (3.11, 5.45).

AFV's Only

Tank leaders can only activate units with the NATO symbol for tanks. All other supporting units, such as self propelled guns, portees, SPAA can only be activated by regular leaders.

3.33 Regular Leader Limitations

Similarly, Regular leaders can't activate or direct AFVs (except APCs) or tank leaders, but any AFVs and Tank Leaders stacked in the regular leader's hex can activate simultaneously with him if the stack self-activates.

3.34 APCs

APCs are hybrid AFV/Transport units, and can be activated by all friendly regular leaders and tank leaders.

4.0 Stacking

More than one friendly unit may occupy the same hex. This is called "stacking."

4.1 Limits

The maximum number of units that may occupy any hex is:

  • Three combat units, PLUS

  • Three transports (including APCs), PLUS

  • Any number of leaders.

Stacking restrictions apply at all times. Units may not enter a hex if doing so would exceed stacking limits. In an assault hex, both sides may have up to three combat units plus three transports (including APCs) and unlimited leaders, for a total of up to twelve units plus an unlimited number of leaders in the hex.

4.2 Transport Units and Leaders

APCs, unarmed transports and leaders do not count for stacking in determining column modifiers in combat (4.4).

4.3 Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs)

APCs are hybrid units. They are open-top AFVs which also act as transports. Their armor value number gives them (and any units they are transporting) immunity to most results on the Direct and Bombardment fire tables. They are combat units, but they stack as transports, meaning up to three APCs and/or unarmed transports (plus loaded units) may stack in a hex with up to three friendly non-APC combat units. They can be activated by all friendly regular leaders AND tank leaders.

4.4 Column Modifiers

A hex containing three combat units suffers a +1 column modifier on the Direct and Bombardment Fire tables. Leaders, APCs and unarmed transports do not count toward this penalty.

Example: A hex with two INF units and a tank suffers a +1 column modifier when attacked on the Direct or Bombardment fire table. So does a hex with three INF units. A hex with three APCs or trucks plus three leaders does not suffer a +1 column modifier in combat.

4.5 Effects on Movement

Moving combat units (except APCs) may not enter a hex containing three friendly non-APC combat units. Moving transports (including APCs) may not enter a hex containing three friendly transports. Leaders have no such restrictions.

5.0 Movement

The active player moves his or her activated units ONE AT A TIME from hex to adjacent hex.

EXCEPTIONS: A leader may choose to move with a unit he activates (including fleeing with it if it fails to recover from demoralization, 6.52, 14.31), and a unit being transported moves at the same time as the transport unit carrying it (5.6). A leader can ride with non-transport units that have higher movement allowances than the Leader (for example, motorcycle units).

A unit's movement allowance is printed in the upper right corner, except for Leaders, who have a movement allowance of 4, and Cavalry Leaders, who have a movement allowance of 6.

Units spend movement points (MPs) from their movement allowances to enter hexes, paying the costs specified on the TEC. A unit only pays the MP cost for the most expensive terrain in the hex unless the TEC says otherwise, or unless the unit is moving along a road or crossing a bridge (5.2). A unit may not exceed its movement allowance in any action segment unless it moves only one hex. A unit with a movement allowance of at least 1 may always move one hex no matter how much it costs to enter the hex. However, some terrain like rivers may block movement (5.72). Activated units which began the action segment in the same hex do not have to move together.

5.1 Movement Type

Each unit has a movement class. Terrain costs vary by movement class.

  • Mechanized: Tanks, self-propelled artillery, most APCs, and other units using tracked or semi-tracked vehicles. All units with an armor value and a movement allowance (except armored cars) are mechanized.

  • Motorized: Armored cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other units using motor-powered wheeled vehicles (not horses). All vehicle units that are not mechanized are motorized.

  • Towed: Units with no movement allowance, which may only move with the aid of a transport unit. Towed units have a "T" on their reverse, limbered side in place of their movement allowance. A few towed units have a movement allowance of 1 on their limbered side. These may be towed or move on their own using Foot movement when limbered.

  • Foot: Units that move using the human or animal foot. All units not described above as Mechanized, Motorized or Towed are Foot units.

5.2 Roads

To obtain the movement benefit of roads, movement must follow the road across a hexside containing the road, not just into or out of a road hex. Units moving along a road (including bridges) pay the road movement cost on the TEC, not the cost of the terrain in the hex.

Roads in town hexes

Units moving along roads in a town hex pay the town movement cost. Moving into a town hex not along a road uses the town hex movement cost.

5.3 Friendly and Enemy Units in the Same Hex

A unit may not enter a hex occupied by one or more enemy combat units unless it is conducting an Assault (12.0).

5.31 Harmless Enemies

A unit may freely enter and exit hexes containing only enemy leaders (see 6.71 for possible leader casualties) and/or unarmed, empty enemy trucks, wagons or sledges. Such enemy transports are eliminated if the moving unit is a combat unit. Unarmed, empty transports can freely enter hexes containing only enemy unarmed, empty transports. They have no effect on each other.

5.32 Assault

Assaulting units may move only a single hex into the adjacent hex occupied by enemy units (EXCEPTION: Cavalry Charges, 15.31), and must then stop moving and assault the enemy units (12.0). Units that began their activation in the assault hex may leave it, but may only move a single hex when doing so. If no friendly units remain in the assault hex when the unit or units leave, then the enemy units in the exited hex get a "free shot" at all the exiting units on the assault table (12.12). Units exiting an assault hex may not enter another hex containing enemy combat units in the same segment.

5.4 Combat Movement

If a unit is activated by a friendly leader, then it may move closer to enemy units that can spot it, have it within their range, and could obtain a combat result on it through direct fire or AT fire. If the unit is not activated by a friendly leader, then it can't move closer to such enemy units. "Moving closer" includes moving into an enemy-occupied hex for an assault (12.1). Units may not enter a hex containing enemy combat units unless they are activated by a friendly leader.

These restrictions apply even if the enemy units in question have MOVED/FIRED markers on them or are in an assault hex (and therefore unable to fire out of the hex). A leader may choose to move with any unit he activates, but is not required to.

5.41 Exceptions

Units with AT fire values only do not impede the movement of personnel units. Units with direct-fire values only do not impede the movement of AFVs (despite the small chance of getting a combat result on AFVs with direct fire). Units do not need leaders to move closer to units which could only obtain a combat result on them with bombardment fire (9.0). Units may not enter the hex of an enemy unit with any kind of fire value unless they're activated by a leader.

A unit does not need a leader to enter a hex at an equal or greater distance from enemy units, or to move closer to enemy units that can't spot it, or to move closer to enemy units through hexes which are outside enemy direct or AT fire range (whichever fire type could hurt it).

5.42 Leader Types

Units must be activated (3.1) by leaders of their own kind to move toward what could hurt them. A regular leader cannot activate AFVs (except for APCs, 5.43), and Tank Leaders (6.8) cannot activate non-AFV units. Regular and tank leaders cannot activate each other, though they may both activate simultaneously if stacked together (3.11). Tank leaders have no rank, so they can't activate each other through subordinate activation (3.2). Only one tank leader may activate per action segment (unless more than one are in a stack that self-activates).

5.43 Armored Personnel Carrier

APCs are hybrid AFV/Transport units. So, they can be activated by any type of leader (regular or tank).

5.44 Leader Limitations

Disrupted leaders can only activate units and subordinate leaders in their own hex. Demoralized leaders can't activate anybody. The same applies to tank leaders in disrupted and demoralized tank units.

5.45 AFV and Non-AFV Units Performing Combat Movement Together

If a regular leader and a tank leader are stacked together in a stack that self-activates (3.11), then those leaders may normally activate all AFVs in the stack and adjacent hexes, and all non-AFV units and leaders in the stack, adjacent hexes, and other hexes through subordinate activation (3.2). All such units and leaders can perform move or fire actions (3.11) normally, including moving toward units that could hurt them. This is the only way AFV and non-AFV units may perform combat movement together in the same segment or enter an assault hex together (12.1). If only one type of leader is in a stack that activates, then only units of his type may advance on units that could hurt them. Note that tank leaders cannot use subordinate activation, so in this case he can only activate AFVs in the activated stack plus all 6 adjacent hexes (3.31). Note also that APCs can be activated by any leader, including those activated by subordinate activation.

Example: A Sergeant, a Tank Leader, an INF unit and an AFV unit which are in the same hex may all activate at once as a stack. All units in the stack may fire or move normally (including moving closer to enemy units that could hurt them) in the same action segment.

If any AFVs, Corporals, and/or non-AFV units are in the six hexes adjacent to the stack, then they may be activated by the leaders in the stack and may all fire or move normally (including Combat Movement) in the same action segment as the stack. So can any APCs and non-AFV units in all hexes adjacent to the Corporal (3.2).

If there was no tank leader in the stack, then the AFV there could still activate as part of the stack, but it could not perform Combat Movement, and the adjacent AFVs could not activate. If there were no regular leader in the stack, then the INF unit there could activate but not perform Combat Movement, and no adjacent non-AFV units or leaders could activate. Note that APCs in the stack and adjacent hexes could all activate and perform combat movement no matter which type of leader is in the stack.

5.5 Night Movement

On night turns, units may not enter hexes that are not friendly-controlled unless they are activated by a leader (5.42).

Walk/drive in my tracks

At night, units self-activating without leaders, may only move into hexes that are occupied by friendly units or have had friendly units be the last unit move though the hex, establishing friendly control. Combat Movement also applies.

5.6 Transport

A single good-order transport unit may transport one weapon or personnel unit (except cavalry), PLUS up to three leaders. Once loaded, the transport unit and everything it carries count as one unit for stacking, movement and combat purposes. They all move together as one. When loading or unloading, the transport and everything being loaded or unloaded must be in the same hex. Disrupted and demoralized transports cannot load or transport units.

5.61 Transporting Personnel

A personnel unit (except cavalry) may load onto or unload from a transport unit at a cost of 1 MP to BOTH units each time the unit loads or unloads. Personnel units may load, be transported and unload in the same movement phase, but may not enter another hex after being unloaded. A transport that unloads personnel may keep moving if it has MPs remaining after unloading.

5.62 Transporting Weapons

Weapon units have two sides. The front shows the weapon deployed for fire and the reverse shows it prepared to move ("limbered"). Only units with a movement factor on the front may move without limbering. To be transported, a weapon unit with no movement allowance and a "T" on the reverse side must be on its reverse side.

5.63 Limbering and Unlimbering

A weapon unit may be limbered and loaded (hooked up for towing) at a cost of all the transport and weapon units' MPs. This requires an entire action segment. Thus, a transport unit may not move and load a weapon unit in the same action segment. Unloading costs no MPs to either unit, but unlimbering requires the weapon unit's entire action segment. Thus, a weapon that starts its action segment loaded may unload and unlimber in the same segment, and the transport unit it was loaded on may move or load another unit in the same hex in the same segment as well.

5.64 Self-Propelled Artillery

Any weapon unit with an armor value is self-propelled and does not need to limber to move. It uses mechanized movement and may not be transported. Weapon units with a movement allowance but no armor value are personnel units and may be transported (5.61).

5.65 Taking Damage

If a transport unit is fired on, everything it's transporting suffers the same fate as the transport. If a transport must make a morale check due to enemy fire, make one roll for the transport only, adding the morale bonus of any one leader it is carrying or in its hex or an adjacent hex. If the transport becomes disrupted or demoralized or is eliminated, so does everything it's transporting.

So, while personnel units and leaders are normally immune to AT fire, they are eliminated if a transport carrying them is destroyed by AT fire. Conversely, a personnel unit loaded on an APC is protected by the APC's armor value, and is immune to all results on the direct fire and bombardment table except X, 2X and 3X.

5.66 Forced Unloading

If a transport unit becomes disrupted or demoralized, everything it's carrying does too and unloads immediately. Weapon and mortar units unload on their limbered sides.

Disrupted units

Disrupted units or transports may not be loaded.

5.67 Restrictions

Units being transported may not conduct any type of fire. If a transport has a fire value, it may fire even if it is loaded. In a hex containing enemy units, a unit being transported may unload as a movement action, but it may not load.

Example: The German player declares that an SPW 251 APC carrying an INF unit will conduct a FIRE action, moving into an adjacent hex to initiate an assault. The German player may count the APC's direct fire value in his total assault strength, but not the fire value of the loaded INF unit. The next turn, the APC may declare a movement action and unload its INF unit. Because it was a movement action, neither unit may conduct an assault that turn (though they may defend against enemy assault).

5.7 River Crossings

Bridges and fords help units cross rivers. Bridges are printed on the board, while fords are designated in the scenario instructions. Players entering a river hex with a bridge or ford pay the MP cost listed on the TEC or in the scenario instructions.

Depending on scenario instructions, units may be able to cross rivers at places other than bridges and fords on their own, or they may need the help of an engineer (ENG) unit. No matter the size of the river, any unit that crosses must stop moving once it leaves the river hex.

5.71 Minor Rivers

Foot and mechanized units may enter minor river hexes without bridges or fords by paying the MP cost for river hexes on the TEC. They may cross to the other side of the river by paying the normal MP cost for the hex entered. Motorized units may not enter a minor river hex or cross it (except at a bridge or ford) without help from an ENG (5.73).

5.72 Major Rivers

Foot and Mechanized units may enter Major River hexes without bridges or fords by paying the River hex MP cost on the TEC. Motorized units may not enter a Major River hex (except at a bridge or ford) unless assisted by an ENG. Foot and mechanized units may move down the river from river hex to river hex, paying the River MP cost, but no unit may cross a major river at any spot other than a bridge or ford unless it is an ENG, or has the assistance of an ENG.

5.73 River Crossing Procedure

To assist units crossing a river, an ENG unit must enter the river hex first. Units needing the ENG's assistance to cross cannot enter the river hex until at least the turn after the ENG enters it. The ENG must be in good order and remain in the river hex without moving during all game turns in which it helps other units to cross.

Each crossing foot and mechanized unit must pay the normal MP cost to enter the ENG's hex. Motorized units can only enter the ENG's hex if they start their activation adjacent to it. All units entering the ENG's hex may move no farther that turn.

In any subsequent game turn, the crossing unit may attempt to leave the river hex. If the unit is a motorized unit crossing a minor river, it may leave the river hex automatically. If the unit is crossing a major river, the owning player rolls two dice and compares the result to the Crossing Number for the unit's type (foot, motorized or mechanized) in the scenario instructions.

Unless scenario instructions state otherwise, the unit can leave the river hex and cross if the result is equal to or less than the Crossing Number. If not, the unit remains in the river hex and may not move this turn. It may try again next turn.

ENG units on their own may enter a major river hex and exit on any subsequent turn on a successful Foot crossing roll.

ENG's lead the way.

Only ENG units can be in a major river on the first turn of a crossing. Units to cross can enter on the second or subsequent turns after the ENG has establishes itself in the hex.

Fleeing units and river crossings

Fleeing units will move back toward a ENG crossing point and possibly recross the river if no other wood, town, entrenchment or other suitable cover is available per the fleeing rule 14.31 through 14.35

5.74 Limitations

Up to three combat units, plus three transports (including APCs), plus any number of leaders may stack in the same river hex with an ENG. An ENG does NOT count against stacking limits in river hexes, but does count when determining column modifiers in direct and bombardment fire (for example, two or three non-APC combat units plus an ENG in a river hex give the enemy a +1 column shift).

5.75 Combat Effects of Rivers

Units in a river hex (whether they're crossing or not) can be attacked normally, even by Assault (12.0). If units assault into a Major River hex, the attacker suffers a -2 column modifier on the first assault round IF neither side has an ENG in the hex.

If the ENG assisting a crossing becomes disrupted or demoralized, so do all friendly units in the hex with it at the time. If a demoralized ENG fails to recover morale and leaves the hex, the other units with it must do the same (exposing them all to a "free shot" if the hex exited is an assault hex, 12.12). All the units leaving the hex must move back in the direction they came from – they may not cross the river when their ENG flees.

Combat effects of rivers

-2 column shift if neither side has an engineer. The rules are correct, the TEC is in error.

Fleeing ENG's

When a ENG is demoralized and flees from a river crossing hex, all other non-demoralized units must move one hex away from the crossing hex.

6.0 Leaders

Leaders are the most important pieces in the game. Their presence is required for most combat units to operate effectively.

6.1 Leader Selection

Unless scenario instructions state otherwise, players select leaders randomly for each scenario. Each player places all his side's leaders of the rank(s) specified in the scenario in an opaque container. He draws one out and "flips" it like a coin. Each leader piece has 2 sides, each side represents a different leader. Use the leader on the side that lands face-up. Continue drawing and flipping leaders until the number of leaders of each rank specified in the scenario has been drawn.

6.2 Leader Activation

A leader may only be activated if it is not currently marked with a "MOVED/FIRED" marker. A leader with a "MOVED/FIRED" marker may assist friendly units undergoing morale checks (14.1) or defending against an assault (12.4), but may not activate friendly unit (3.1), assist recovering units (14.4) or attack in an assault (12.11).

6.3 Movement

Leaders move as Foot units and have a movement allowance of 4, except for cavalry leaders (6.9) who have a movement allowance of 6. Scenario instructions may also modify leader movement. All leaders except cavalry leaders may be transported (5.6). A leader may move with any unit he activates, and can ride on a non-transport unit that has a higher movement allowance than he does (such as a motorcycle unit).

6.4 Combat
6.41 Combine Fire

Units stacked together in the same hex may always add their direct fire or bombardment fire values together into one combined attack without the help of a leader. Units may not combine different fire types (such as direct and bombardment) into the same attack--only fire values of the same type may combine. Different units may never combine their AT fire values into one attack.

Units in different hexes may not combine their fire values into one attack without the aid of a leader. An activated, good-order leader with a combat modifier of "1" may combine the direct or bombardment fire values in his hex plus one adjacent hex. An activated, good order leader with a combat modifier of "2" may combine the direct or bombardment fire values in his hex plus two adjacent hexes. He MAY NOT combine direct and bombardment fire into one attack.

Leaders and Opportunity Fire

Leaders may enable units to combine fire for Opportunity Fire. If the units involved can conduct two Opportunity Fires per turn, the leader can enable them to combine fire twice.

6.42 Firepower Enhancement

An activated, undemoralized leader may add his combat modifier to the direct fire value of one unit in his hex. For example, a German leader with a combat modifier of "1" may increase the direct fire value of a German INF unit from 5 to 6. Defending leaders in assaults (12.0) can add their combat bonuses to defending units even though they are not activated. If a hex contains multiple units and leaders, then each leader may add his combat bonus to the firepower of only one unit, and each unit may receive a firepower bonus from only one leader.

6.43 Assault

An undemoralized leader in an assault hex gives friendly units there a +1 column shift (see Assault Table). He also increases their direct fire value as usual if he has a combat modifier. Additional friendly leaders do not give additional column shifts.

6.5 Morale
6.51 Morale Checks

A leader may assist units in his hex and adjacent hexes in their morale checks. Add the leader's morale modifier to the morale of the units undergoing the morale checks. A leader does not have to activate to assist in morale checks, and may assist even if he has a MOVED/FIRED marker on him.

Leaders assisting morale checks

Leaders need not activate to assist morale checks.

Strongpoints have feelings too!

Leaders can assist strongpoints in making morale checks and attempting to rally just like any other units.

6.52 Recovery

An activated leader may help the units he activates to recover from disruption or demoralization (14.4). Add the leader's morale modifier to the morale of the units attempting recovery. A given unit may benefit from only one leader's morale modifier - do not add multiple leaders' modifiers. If a leader activates lower-ranking leaders through subordinate activation (3.2), the lower-ranking leaders may add their own morale modifiers to the morale of the recovering units they activate (not the superior leader's modifier).

If a demoralized unit in an activated good-order leader's hex fails to recover and flees (14.31), the leader may move with it. If the leader is disrupted, he must voluntarily become demoralized himself if he wants to flee with it (change his marker from Disrupted to Demoralized and move him with the fleeing unit).

Leader recovery

A disrupted leader may recover and assist recovery in the same activation (in the same hex). A demoralized leader may not.

Fleeing leaders

Leaders are not required to flee with demoralized units that fail recovery and are forced to flee.

Leaders assisting recovery

Leaders must activate to assist in recovery.

6.53 Good Order, Disrupted and Demoralized Leaders

A good-ordered leader may assist units in his hex and adjacent hexes to check morale and recovery. A disrupted leader may assist units in his hex only; a demoralized leader may assist no one.

Any leader can help

Any leader's morale modifier can be used to assist a unit's recovery, but a unit can only be assisted by one leader.

6.54 Leaders Helping Leaders

A leader may use his morale modifier to assist lower-ranking leaders just as he would to assist units.

Leaders can only help others

A leader attempting a morale check may not benefit from his own morale modifier.

6.55 Restrictions

A leader may not move to a different hex or participate in Fire actions in the same action segment in which he assists a recovery attempt (EXCEPTION: He may flee with a demoralized unit in his hex that fails to recover, (14.31) Place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on him.

6.6 Kommissars (KOM)

Soviet, Communist Chinese and other Soviet-bloc forces occasionally include Kommissars. KOMs are treated as leaders for purposes of being killed (6.7) and rolling morale, but otherwise do not function as leaders. They serve only to assist demoralized units to recover (14.4). They may not assist demoralized leaders.

Breed all their own

Leaders cannot activate Kommissars

6.61 Required Movement

A KOM must move to the nearest demoralized friendly unit by the shorted route (in terms of MP cost) possible.

6.62 Party Discipline

To assist in recovery, the KOM must be activated and begin the action segment stacked with the demoralized unit(s) (which must be activated). Use the KOM's morale value in place of the units' morale, and roll for recovery for each of the units.

6.63 Benevolent Assistance

If the recovery attempt is successful the unit recovers to good order (not disrupted). If the recovery attempt is unsuccessful, the unit suffers a step loss and remains demoralized. If the demoralized unit must flee due to failure to recover (14.31), the KOM must move with it.

6.64 Self-Criticism

Disrupted KOMs may assist demoralized units in recovery. Demoralized KOMs may not.

6.65 Mandatory Re-Education

If a KOM is stacked with a demoralized unit, he must at some point in the turn be activated and assist the unit in recovery. The Soviet player may not pass if he has an unactivated KOM stacked with an unactivated, demoralized unit.

Only Kommissars can recover demoralized units

If a demoralized unit activates to recover, any KOM with them must activate to assist. Non-KOM leaders will not be able to apply their morale modifier for these recovery attempts.

6.66 Rule of the Beast

If two KOMs are in play and only one Soviet unit in play is demoralized, then only one KOM need move toward it.

6.7 Leader Casualties

Leaders can be eliminated in more than one way. A demoralized leader who is again demoralized is eliminated (14.11). A demoralized leader who rolls a 12 on his recovery roll deserts and is eliminated (14.44). Otherwise, if a leader is in a hex where any units suffer step losses, he may be killed or badly wounded. After all step losses have been applied and all morale checks are completed, the owning player rolls two dice for each leader in the hex. Subtract one from the result for every step loss suffered by friendly units in the hex. On a modified result of 2 or less, the leader is eliminated.

Exemptions for leader casualty rolls

Leader casualties are not rolled for any casualties from AT shots or when casualties are taken in the hex and the leader is loaded on an APC.

6.71 Lone Leaders

If one or more leaders are in a hex with no other units, one leader is eliminated per step loss scored on the hex by bombardment or direct fire (e.g., X = one leader eliminated, 2X = two leaders eliminated, etc.). If one or more enemy combat units (not unarmed transports or leaders) enter such a hex, roll two dice for each friendly leader in the hex. On a result of 9 or more the leader rolled for is removed from play. On a result less than 9, he is displaced to an adjacent hex that is either friendly-controlled or vacant. If all adjacent hexes are enemy occupied, he is eliminated.

Combat modifiers

Lone leaders are not subject to any of the unit-specific combat modifiers on the Direct Fire and Bombardment Fire tables. Leaders are subject to target hex modifiers.

OP Fire first

When entering a hex with a lone leader, OP fire occurs before a lone leader removal roll.

6.72 Decapitation

If the highest-ranking leader on a side is eliminated, no friendly unit within three hexes of where he was killed may move in the remainder of the current or subsequent game-turn. They may fire normally.

Involuntary movement only

Units in the 3 hex decapitation radius may not voluntarily move during the two turn penalty. All fleeing units, lone leader survivors and other involuntary movement still occurs.

Senior leadership only

Decapitation can only happen once to the highest ranking leader(s) in the scenario per side.

6.73 Catastrophic Loss

If a leader with a rank of MAJ or higher is eliminated, all friendly units which were stacked with him undergo an immediate morale check. Subtract (do not add as is normal) the eliminated leader's morale modifier from the morale of each unit checking morale.

6.8 Tank Leaders

All German AFVs, all Soviet Guards AFVs in scenarios taking place in 1943 or later, and all American and Polish AFVs in scenarios taking place in 1944 or later have tank leaders. For all other forces, the scenario instructions designate how many tank leaders a side has. The owning player secretly assigns the tank leaders to his or her AFV units (record the letter IDs of the AFVs with tank leaders). APCs never have tank leaders and may not have tank leaders assigned to them. However, they can be activated by tank leaders and regular leaders.

6.81 Effects

A tank leader can activate AFVs (including APCs) in his own hex and all six adjacent hexes. If an AFV is activated by a tank leader, it can initiate an assault (12.1) or move closer to an enemy unit that can spot it, has range on it, and could obtain a combat result on it through AT fire.

6.82 Limitations

Tank leaders have no rank, cannot activate non-AFV units, cannot activate other tank leaders through subordinate activation (3.2), may not spot for bombardment (9.1), and do not modify combat or morale.

6.83 Other Leaders

Regular leaders can activate APCs, but cannot activate any other type of AFV.

Regular leaders and AFV morale checks

Regular leaders may not use their morale modifier to assist AFV morale checks.

6.84 Tank Leaders and Regular Leaders Activating Together

If a regular leader is stacked with a tank leader and the stack self-activates (3.11), then both leaders activate simultaneously. They may activate AFVs, non-AFV units and lower-ranking leaders in the stack and adjacent hexes normally. All such units and leaders may perform any type of move and fire actions (3.11) and subordinate activation (3.2) normally, all in the same action segment. This includes moving closer to enemy units and/or initiating assaults (5.4, 12.1).

Combined tank and regular leader activation

Activating tank and regular leaders in the same hex counts as one activation.

6.85 Armored Car Leaders

Every armored car unit (defined in the scenario book) always has an Armored Car Leader. An Armored Car Leader has the same capabilities as a Tank Leader, except that he can only activate armored cars.

6.9 Cavalry Leaders

In scenarios with cavalry units, players may designate any of their leaders as cavalry leaders unless scenario rules say otherwise. Cavalry leaders have a movement allowance of 6, and are the only leaders that may order a cavalry charge (15.31). In all other respects they act like regular leaders.

7.0 Combat
7.1 Types

Each unit which elects to "FIRE" during its activation segment may perform one type of fire. The fire types available for use are:

  • Bombardment Fire (9.0)

  • Direct Fire (10.0)

  • Anti-Tank Fire (11.0)

  • Assault (12.0)

Alternatively, inactive units may use Opportunity Fire (13.0) to attack spotted, moving individual enemy units with direct or anti-tank fire. Units may only perform a given fire type if the values for the fire type are printed on the unit's piece (7.3).

7.2 Restrictions
7.21 Spotting Requirements

Units must be able to spot (8.0) enemy units in order to fire on them, except for units using bombardment fire. A friendly undemoralized regular leader in spotting range (8.1) of the target may spot the target for bombarding units which can't spot it on their own.

7.22 Multiple Fire Types

A unit may not conduct more then one type of fire (7.1) per turn. Units may not activate or fire in a friendly action phase if they took Opportunity Fire (13.0) in an enemy action phase.

7.23 Split Fire

A unit must apply its entire fire value against a single target - it may not "split" its fire to attack more then one target in the same action segment.

EXCEPTION: An HMG unit may divide its direct fire value to attack multiple targets in the same action segment. This "split" fire may be combined with the fire values of other units normally (7.33). The smallest number into which an HMG's fire value may be split is 3 (thus a German 9-5 HMG can be hit three separate targets at a strength of 3 each). An HMG may not divide fire when conducting opportunity fire (13.0).

7.24 Blocked Fire

Units may not target direct fire at a hex containing friendly units, nor may they trace direct fire through a hex containing friendly non-armored units (EXCEPTION: see 10.1). They MAY target bombardment fire at an assault hex. They may also target anti-tank fire at an assault hex IF there are no friendly vehicle units in that hex.

AT fire has clear line of fire

AT fire cannot be blocked by friendly/enemy AFV units.

7.25 Armor Immunity

If a unit has an armor value (even a value of 0), it is immune to all but an "X" or "#X" result on the direct fire or bombardment fire tables. If the unit is an APC, anything it's transporting is immune as well. Armor gives no protection on the Assault Table (for example, M = Morale Check for all assault targets including all AFVs).

Truck armor

Immunity only applies to units with a printed armor value on the counter.

7.3 Unit Fire Value and Range

A unit's fire value and range are printed on its playing piece in the form of two numbers separated by a dash. The number before the dash is the fire value - the number after the dash is the range. Some units have more than one type of fire value. Fire values are color-coded by type as follows:

  • Black: Direct Fire

  • White: Bombardment Fire

  • Red or Yellow: Anti-Tank Fire

7.31 Restrictions

Units must possess the appropriate fire value in order to preform a specific type of fire (for example, a unit with no anti-tank value may not use AT fire).

7.32 Combat Range

Units must be within range of their intended targets to attack them. Trace a line from the center of the firing unit's hex to the center of the target hex, and count the hexes the line goes through. The number of hexes must be equal to or less than the firing unit's range. Count the hex occupied by the target unit(s) but not the hex(es) occupied by the firing units.

7.33 Combining Fire

Units may add their direct or bombardment fire values together to make one stronger attack. Only fire of the same type may combine - direct fire may never combine with bombardment fire. AT fire values may never combine under any circumstances.

Units stacked together in the same hex may always combine fire, whether they have a leader or not. Units in adjacent hexes may combine fire only if activated by a leader who has a combat modifier. A leader can combine the fire of his hex plus a number of adjacent hexes equal to his combat modifier (6.41).

Up to three offboard artillery factors may combine into one attack per action segment. They may not combine with onboard units.

Strongpoints

Strongpoints may combine fire with units in their hex. They may also combine fire with adjacent units if a leader with a combat modifier is present.

7.4 Fire Effects
7.41 Direct and Bombardment Fire

Direct fire and bombardment attacks affect all units in the target hex except for AFVs. AFVs (and anything loaded on APCs) are only affected by an "X" or "#X" result.

Step loss determination

Direct and Bombardment fire that results in step losses can be applied to any units in the hex.

7.42 Anti Tank Fire

AT fire only affects the individual vehicle unit fired upon (and anything it's transporting).

7.43 Assault

Assault fire affects all enemy units in the assault hex.

Step loss determination

Step losses in assault hexes must be applied to good-order units first. (See 7.63)

Participation losses

Only units that participate in the assault per 12.3 suffers losses.

7.44 Opportunity Fire

Opportunity Fire only affects the individual moving unit fired upon (and anything it's transporting). Units with direct fire values, and AFVs with Armor Efficiency (11.2), may conduct two opportunity fires each turn.

Opportunity fire on leaders moving with units

If a leader is moving with a unit that takes opportunity fire, the fire results affect BOTH the combat unit and the leader.

Opportunity fire in different enemy activations

Units may take their two opportunity fire shots during two different enemy activations.

7.45 Results

Determine results on the combat results table for the appropriate type of fire. Results may range from the target unit(s) having to take step losses (7.6) or morale checks (14.1), to no effect at all.

7.46 MOVED/FIRED Markers

Once a unit has preformed any type of fire, place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on it to show that it may preform no further action this turn (EXCEPTION: "Free Shot" when all enemy units exit assault hex, 12.12). When a unit uses its first opportunity fire in a turn, place two MOVED/FIRED markers on it. When it uses its second opportunity fire in the turn, remove the second MOVED/FIRE marker and leave the first to show it cannot move, fire or activate this turn.

7.5 Column and Dice Roll Modifiers

Some conditions change the column used on the direct fire, bombardment or assault table, or modify the result of an Anti-Tank fire dieroll.

7.51 Applying a Column Modifier

When a column modifier is applicable, go up or down a number of columns equal to the modifier. Foe example, a modifier of +2 would change a bombardment attack from the 5 column to the 12 column. See the tables for the column modifiers for each fire type. Only the direct fire table has maximum positive and negative column modifiers (10.3), but no attack on any table is ever reduced below the lowest column on the table. When a dieroll modifier is applicable to anti-tank fire, add or subtract it from the result.

7.52 Separate Column Modifiers in One Attack

In some cases, a column modifier will apply to some units in an attacked hex but not others. In such a case, make one dieroll for the attack, but use different columns to determine the combat results on the different target units.

Example: An SS HMG unit with a direct fire value of 11 fires at a hex containing a Soviet INF unit and a 76.2mm artillery unit. The range is 2 hexes, so the HMG attacks the INF unit on the 11 column of the Direct Fire Table, and attacks the artillery on the 22 column (+2 column modifier vs. artillery). The German player rolls once, rolling a 4. That's an M1 result vs. the INF unit, and an X result vs. the gun. The INF unit must make an M1 morale check, while the gun is eliminated.

Split column fire effect v. Single column fire effect

Rule 7.52 is an exception to the concept of a hex taking a single result of combat. Combat results are applied based on the column that a unit is attacked on from the firing table. Most of the time rolls will be based on a single column on a combat table and the results will apply to all units. In some cases, such as artillery/mortars/AT/AA guns, a shift is applied that is unique to the unit type and causes the split fire, attacks on different columns, with other units in the hex. Results for each of the column attacks will only apply to units attacked under that column. (Editor's note - This official ruling is controversial, and many players choose to override this with house rules.)

Examples, based on an AT gun and INF sharing the same hex and attacked on the 30 and 21 column, respectively after column shifts, on the bomabrdment chart. On a roll of 2, the AT gun results in a 2X and the INF results in an X, the AT Gun is eliminated and the INF is reduced and has to take a M2 morale check. The excess step loss on the AT gun is ignored as there is no other unit attacked under the 30 column.

Trucks/Wagons/Sledges can cause split column fire

Trucks/Wagons/Sledges will cause split column fire. X results from a split column fire attack will only apply for the column that the truck/wagon/sledge attack was resolved on.(Note - this contradicts rule 7.61 where direct and bombardment fire affect the whole hex)

7.6 Step Losses

A full-strength unit which takes a step loss must flip to its reduced-strength side. A reduced-strength unit which takes a step loss is eliminated. A unit with no reduced strength side that takes a step loss is also eliminated. Any unit that takes two or more step losses is eliminated. If a transport is eliminated, any unit which was loaded on it at the time is also eliminated.

Morale checks with step loss

A stack or individual unit that takes a step loss must take a M2 after the step loss is applied.

7.61 Direct and Bombardment Fire

Each direct or bombardment fire attack affects the entire target hex. An "X" result on the Direct or Bombardment Fire table causes the following damage:

  1. One step loss to one combat unit in the hex (except closed-top AFVs), AND

  2. One step loss to one wagon, truck or sledge unit in the hex.

In all cases, the owning player chooses which unit in both categories listed takes the step loss. If a hex does not contain units of a given type (for example, no wagon, truck or sledge units), the step loss to that type of unit is ignored. If a "2X" or "3X" result is rolled, the fire causes 2 or 3 step losses (respectively) to both unit types above. The owning player gets to choose which units in each category take the second and third step losses, except that at least one of the step losses must be taken by an open-top AFV if present.

Closed-top AFVs never take step losses from direct or bombardment fire. However, they must all make an M morale check in a hex where an X, 2X or 3X result occurs. All other surviving units in the hex must make an M2 morale check after step losses are applied.

Example: A "2X" result is rolled against a hex containing a full strength German INF unit, a Tiger tank, an SPW 251 APC and two wagon units. This inflicts one step loss on the German INF unit and eliminates the APC plus both wagons. The tank and the reduced-strength INF remain in the hex. The tank must make a M morale check, while the INF unit must make an M2 morale check.

7.62 Anti-Tank Fire

Combat results inflicted by Anti-Tank Fire only affect the individual target unit fired upon.

7.63 Assault

If a "1" result is rolled on the Assault table, the fire causes the following damage:

  1. One step loss to one enemy combat unit of any kind in the assault hex, AND

  2. One step loss to one enemy wagon, truck or sledge unit in the hex.

In both of the unit type categories above, the first step loss must be taken by a unit with the best morale status. A good-order unit must be the first step loss if friendly disrupted or demoralized units of its type are present in the hex. If all friendly units of a given type in the hex are disrupted or demoralized, then a disrupted unit must take the step loss. If all friendly units of a given type are demoralized, the owning player chooses which one takes the first step loss.

If a "2" or "3" result is rolled, the fire causes 2 or 3 step losses (respectively) to both unit types listed above. The owning player gets to choose which units in each category take the second and third step losses, except that at least one of the step losses must be taken by an AFV (of any type) if present. As with direct and bombardment fire, step losses to absent unit types are ignored.

Example: A German-occupied hex contains an INF unit, a disrupted HMG, a Tiger tank, an SPW 251 APC, and two trucks. All units are at full-strength. If Allied units assault into the hex and roll a "1" result, the German player would be required to remove one truck from play, and then apply the step loss to either the INF, tank or APC (his choice). He could not apply the step loss to the HMG because it's disrupted and the other combat units are not.

If the Allied player had rolled a "2" or "3" result, the German player would be required to remove both trucks from play. He would then be free to allocate the 2 or 3 step losses among his units as desired, except that he must apply at least one step loss to the tank or the APC.

After applying all step losses, each surviving unit must make an M2 morale check.

If any active units in the assault hex did not participate in the assault, then any step losses their side takes may not be applied to them (12.3).

7.64 Opportunity Fire

Opportunity fire only affects the single moving unit that is the target of the fire. Therefore, combat results (including step losses) inflicted by the opportunity fire do not apply to any other units in the hex with the moving unit. Each unit may conduct two opportunity fires per turn if it is using direct fire, or if it is an AFV with armor efficiency (11.2) using AT fire.

8.0 Spotting

Direct and bombardment fire affects the entire target hex. In order to perform direct or bombardment fire, at least one enemy unit in the target hex must be spotted (visible to a spotting friendly unit). Once such a unit is spotted, the hex may be fired on and all units in the hex are affected normally whether they're spotted or not (8.2, EXCEPTION: 7.64).

For anti-tank and opportunity fire, the individual target unit must be spotted to be fired on, whether other units in the hex are spotted or not (8.2).

8.1 Spotting Range

Spotting range is the distance in hexes from a unit's location that it can "see" enemy units. During daylight, units in clear terrain can see 12 hexes in all directions. Limiting terrain (8.2) and elevation lines (8.4) reduce spotting range, either by concealing units occupying the limiting terrain or blocking line of sight (8.3). Unit on hills or other elevations have their spotting ranges increased (8.41, 8.42). Weather or time of day may decrease spotting range (see scenario special rules). Spotting range at night is normally one hex (the adjacent one). Some scenarios include other special spotting rules.

Definition of Night

Unless otherwise stated in scenario specific rules, all visibility of one hex is night. The direct fire and bombardment negative shift is applied and night movement(5.5) restrictions apply.

8.2 Limiting Terrain

Woods, hill, field and town hexes are all called "limiting terrain". Some scenarios may specify additional limiting terrain types. Limiting terrain blocks lines of sight (8.3, EXCEPTION: 8.36), unless it is on a lower elevation than the spotting unit (8.4). Limiting terrain also conceals units occupying it.

Swamps

Swamps are not limiting terrain and thus do not block line of sight. However, units in swamp hexes can only be spotted at a range of one hex. Upon firing, the units are marked SPOTTED as usual (8.22).

8.21 Spotting in Limiting Terrain

A unit occupying limiting terrain may only be spotted by enemy units within three hexes of its location or less if the current spotting range is less than three (due to night or weather) or the line of sight to the unit's hex is blocked (8.31).

Absolute spotting limitations for hills

Any unit on a hill or elevation hex is in limiting terrain and can only be spotted at 3 hexes or less. (Editor's note - This official ruling is controversial, and many players choose to override this with house rules.)

8.22 "SPOTTED" Markers

When a unit occupying limiting terrain fires, it blows its cover. Place a "SPOTTED" marker on top of the unit that fired, and underneath any units in the spotted hex that didn't fire. As long as the "SPOTTED" marker remains on a unit, it's considered to be in a Clear hex for spotting purposes, thus units up to 12 hexes away can spot it during daylight turns if they have line of sight to the unit's hex (8.3).

Enemy units in range may use direct and bombardment fire to hit a hex with a "SPOTTED" marker on it, and all units in the hex (whether spotted or not) are affected normally. However, only units with a "SPOTTED" marker on top of them may be hit by AT fire. If a unit with a "SPOTTED" marker on top of it moves to another hex that is either limiting terrain and more than 3 hexes from enemy units, or is outside line of sight, remove the "SPOTTED" marker from the unit.

Spotting assault units

Units of both sides become spotted in an assault hex.

Spotted units and opportunity fire

Because spotted units lose their spotted status when they leave their original hex and enter another limited terrain hex, they cannot be fired upon with opportunity fire during this movement. Opportunity fire may only occur when a unit moves into a hex where it remains spotted.

8.23 Terrain Artwork

A hex contains limiting terrain if the terrain drawing fills more than one-quarter of the hex (a sliver is not limiting terrain). In most cases it should be obvious whether the drawing fills more than a quarter of a hex, but is there is disagreement, then assume the hex DOES contain limiting terrain.

8.3 Line of Sight (LOS)

In order to spot an enemy unit, an active unit or leader must trace a line of sight to the target. The LOS is determined by taking a straightedge and tracing a straight line from the center of the active unit's hex to the center of the target hex.

8.31

LOS is blocked if it passes...

  • through a hex that contains limiting terrain (see 8.2, the TEC, and scenario special rules)

  • along the hexside between two hexes that both contain limiting terrain (EXCEPTION: 8.36)

  • or through terrain at a higher elevation than the spotting and spotted units

8.32

An LOS may enter a hex with limiting terrain, but may not pass through it.

8.33

Units never block LOS, but may block direct fire (7.24).

8.34

LOS generally works both ways. If you can see him he can see you, unless you or he occupy a limiting terrain hex (8.21) or a hex at a higher elevation (8.4).

8.35

An LOS that falls along a hex spine can pass through either of the two adjacent hexes (spotting player's choice).

LOS Diagram

Example: The German HMG can spot the Soviet CAV since the LOS is traced down the hex spine, and can therefore pass through the hex on either side of the spine, thus not being traced through the town hex. However, the HMG cannot spot the Soviet SMG since the LOS is traced through the town hex.

LOS is a line

Once a player chooses a side of a hexspine, subsequent hexspine resolutions occur on the same side as the first.

8.36

Limiting terrain does not block LOS between units if either unit occupies a hex at a higher elevation than the limiting terrain (8.4). However, units occupying a limiting terrain hex still can't be spotted by units more than 3 hexes away unless a SPOTTED marker is in their hex (8.32).

Elevation height

Units must be higher than, not higher than or equal to. Therefore, units must be at least one elevation level higher than the adjusted height for towns and woods to see over them.

Example 1: A unit is at 20m elevation and is trying to spot a unit on the other side of a town. Because the town is at a height of 20m it is at the SAME level and blocks LOS between the units. If the unit was at 40m elevation it could see over the town to the unit.

Example 2: A unit is at 40m elevation and is trying to spot a unit at 40m elevation, but a woods hex at the 20m level is between them. This is blocked as the woods extend up to the 40m level which is at the SAME level as the two units. If one unit was at 60m elevation LOS would be available.

8.4 Elevation

The map contains lines indicating changes in elevation. Each line represents an elevation change of 20 meters. The LOS between two hexes is blocked if it passes through one elevation line (or other elevating terrain like a town, 8.42) that is higher than both hexes. It is also blocked if it passes through two elevation lines of equal height and one of the hexes is lower than both elevation lines. Units at a higher elevation than their opponents have combat advantages. See the fire tables.

8.41 Increased Spotting Range

The spotting range from a hex is increased by 6 hexes for every level of elevation above the hex being spotted. So, a unit in a hex with a 40 meter elevation can spot units at zero elevation up to 12 + (2 x 6) = 24 hexes away. This does not apply during night turns or daylight turns with reduced spotting range due to weather, etc.

Increased spotting for ground units

Ground units do not get the increased range bonus for spotting units firing from a hill.

8.42 Town Hexes

When spotting from a town hex or tracing LOS through it, treat the town hex as being 20 meters higher than the terrain it sits on. So, if a town hex is located in a hex on a 20 meter elevation line, then treat it as 40 meters in elevation for purposes of LOS and spotting range. A town at zero elevation counts as 20 meters in elevation.

Firing from town hexes

Direct and AT fire from a town originates from the level of the town, not the 20m height for LOS and spotting.

Woods hexes

Treat woods like town hexes for LOS determination. The extend up 20m to potentially block LOS. However, woods do not convey the spotting range bonus that higher elevations and towns do.

Forward Observers in trees/bell towers

Bombardment fire can self spot from the increased elevation of a town or woods.

9.0 Bombardment

Active units with bombardment fire values may attack hexes containing spotted enemy units within range.

Bombardment

"Bombardment" is the same as "indirect fire."

9.1 Target Spotting

Units using bombardment fire don't have to spot their target themselves. A friendly, undemoralized regular leader can spot the target for them unless the scenario instructions say otherwise. Spotting for bombardment does not require the leader to activate - an unactivated leader or a leader under a "MOVED/FIRED" marker may spot for bombardment. A leader may spot for as many different bombardments per turn as desired. Tank leaders (6.8) may NOT spot for bombardment.

Busy leaders

Leaders being transported, and leaders in assault hexes may spot for artillery.

9.2 Offboard Artillery

Unless scenario instructions say otherwise, each offboard artillery factor available in a scenario may fire once per turn at any hex on the board containing spotted unit(s) (it has unlimited range).

OBA only comes in threes

Only three offboard artillery factors or fire values may be used per activation segment.

9.3 Combined Fire

Bombardment fire units stacked in the same hex may combine their fire values without assistance from a leader. Bombardment fire units in adjacent hexes may combine their fire values only if a good-order leader with a combat modifier is in one of those hexes (6.41, 7.33).

Up to three offboard bombardment fire values may combine into one fire value, but may not combine with on-map units.

Example: The scenario instructions give the American player an off-map artillery value of "3 x 20." These may be combined into one 60-value bombardment, one of 40 and one of 20, or three separate bombardments of 20. They may not be combined with any onboard units.

9.4 Procedure

For each hex being bombarded, the active player totals the bombardment fire strengths of all units bombarding the hex. He then finds the column on the Bombardment Table which either equals or does not exceed the total fire value of all units bombarding that hex this segment, and applies any column modifiers (7.5). He then rolls two dice and cross-references the result with the column arrived at, and applies the combat results rolled (if any) to ALL units in the target hex.

9.5 Friendly Fire

If a target hex contains or is adjacent to a hex containing friendly units, the friendly units may be affected.

9.51 Same Hex

If bombardment fire hits an assault hex, both the friendly and enemy units will be affected. Roll two bombardment attacks - one for each side's units - and determine column modifiers separately for each side's units (7.52).

9.52 Adjacent Hex

If friendly units occupy a hex adjacent to a hex targeted for bombardment, the owning player rolls one die for each such hex. Add one to the result for German, British or American bombardment fire. On a modified result of 1 or 2, the hex is hit by friendly fire. Multiple adjacent hexes may be hit in this way. If an adjacent hex hit by friendly fire contains both friendly and enemy units, ONLY THE FRIENDLY UNITS are hit. (Note: This rule prevents players from hitting unspotted enemy units "accidentally" through friendly fire).

If a hex is hit by friendly fire, roll another die and consult the "Friendly Fire Numbers" line on the Bombardment table. Resolve a bombardment fire attack against the friendly units in the hex, using the column with the friendly fire number rolled (do not apply column modifiers).

9.53 Initial Target

If an adjacent hex is hit by friendly fire, the initial target hex is still bombarded normally (the fire does not "miss" the target hex).

10.0 Direct Fire

Activated units may use their direct fire values to fire on hexes containing spotted enemy units within range.

10.1 Blocked Fire

Direct fire may be traced through empty hexes, enemy-occupied hexes, or hexes containing only friendly AFVs. Direct fire may not be traced through hexes containing friendly non-AFV units unless the firing unit is an HMG, AFV or antiaircraft unit. These units may fire "through" hexes containing all types of friendly units, IF the fire is also traced through at least one hex which:

  1. Contains no friendly units, and

  2. Is between the target hex and all friendly units along the line of fire.

Direct Fire Diagram

Example: The Romanian HMG wants to fire at the Soviet CAV and SMG, but the friendly ENG is in the way. The HMG can fire on the Soviet SMG because there is a hex containing no friendly units between the Romanian ENG and Soviet SMG. It can't fire on the Soviet CAV since the line of fire goes through the friendly ENG's hex and there is no hex free of friendly units between it and the enemy unit.

If there were friendly units in the hexes between the Romanian HMG and ENG, it would make no difference. There need only be a hex free of friendly units between the target hex and the outermost friendly-occupied hex along the line of fire.

Blocked fire and height advantage

All units can fire over friendly units but they must still have the one clear hex between the friendly unit and the target.

10.2 Procedure

For each direct-fire attack, the active player determines whether a unit will fire individually or whether multiple units will combine fire (7.33). He then totals the direct fire strengths of all units firing in the attack, finds the column on the Direct Fire Table that either equals or does not exceed the total, and then applies any column modifiers (7.5, 10.3). He then rolls two dice and cross-references the result with the column arrived at, and applies the combat results rolled (if any) to ALL units in the target hex.

Combining direct fire with different ranges to target

When using combined fire to attack with units at varying ranges to the target -- ex: some adjacent, some not or some three hexes away, some two -- you always apply the most restrictive column shifts.

10.3 Maximum Column Modifications

Column modifiers may not increase the column used for direct fire by more than three or decrease it by more than two. The maximum/minimum only applies AFTER all the positive and negative column modifiers have been calculated and netted out. Direct fire is the only type of fire with these maximums.

Example: An Italian infantry platoon with a fire strength of 4 attacks an adjacent British-occupied hex containing three artillery units. The attack is resolved on the 16 column of the Direct Fire Table (an increase of three columns), even though the modifiers listed on the table would increase the column by five (two for point-blank range, one for three units in the target hex, two for artillery in the target hex).

10.4 Restrictions

Units in assault hexes may not use direct fire - they may only perform assault combat (12.0) or AT fire (11.0) against enemy units in the assault hex.

11.0 Anti-Tank ("AT") Fire

Anti-Tank fire targets an individual enemy vehicle unit within range - no other units in the hex with the target unit are affected in any way. Only trucks and AFVs may be attacked with anti-tank fire. A unit with an AT fire value in an assault hex may use AT fire against enemy vehicles in the hex.

11.1 Procedure

For each AT attack, the active player designates the firing unit and its target. He or she rolls two dice, adds the firing unit's AT value, subtracts the target unit's armor value, and applies any other modifiers listed on the Anti-Tank Fire table. Consult the Anti-Tank Fire Table to determine the result.

11.11 Trucks

Trucks have no armor protection, but are treated as having an armor value of -1 only for purposes of calculating AT fire dieroll modifiers against them.

11.12 Crossfire

The Anti-Tank Fire Table contains this modifier: "+2 if the target is attacked this turn through two or more non-adjacent hexes." This applies only to attacks traced through a non-adjacent hex after the first AT attack on the vehicle this turn (not necessarily during the same action segment). The modifier does not apply if the target unit moves after the first unit fires on it and before the second unit fires.

To qualify for the crossfire modifier, the second and/or subsequent AT attack must be traced through an actual non-adjacent hex - not along the spine between an adjacent and a non-adjacent hex.

Crossfire Diagram

Example: The Soviet KV-1 has already fired on the Romanian R-35 during this turn. In subsequent shots, the Soviet Ba6 does not qualify for the crossfire bonus because it is shooting down the hex spine. The T-26 does qualify, however, because its line of fire is being traced through a non-adjacent hex.

"No chance" AT fire for crossfire

AT shots that have no chance for a step loss can be used to setup the crossfire bonus.

11.2 Armor Efficiency

The following units have "armor efficiency," which means they can make two AT fire attacks per turn (either in their action segment or during opportunity fire) if they have AT fire values of 0 or more:

  • Full-strength (not reduced) German AFV units;

  • Full-strength Soviet Guards AFV units in scenarios taking place in 1943 or later;

  • Full-strength American, Commonwealth, French and Polish AFV units in scenarios taking place in 1944 or later.

The two attacks need not be made against the same target.

11.3 Increased Range

Each unit with an AT fire value of 2 or more may fire at targets at a distance of between 100% and 150% of its printed AT range. It does so at half its AT fire value.

12.0 Assault

Assault combat takes place between opposing units occupying the same hex.

12.1 Assault Movement
12.11 Entering a hex

Only activated good-order units directed by a leader of their own type (Regular or Tank), or by any leader for APCs, may enter an adjacent hex occupied by enemy units. This is called "assault movement." They may do this only if they start their activation adjacent to the enemy-occupied hex they wish to enter (EXCEPTION: Cavalry Charges, 15.31), and must stop moving once they've entered the hex. This initiates an assault (or reinforces an existing one).

The assaulting units are the "attacker"; their opponents are the "defender." The attacker can change in later action segments or turns - defending units that survive the first segment of assault can counterattack on their owning player's action segment, at which point they become the attacker. Attacker status can go back and forth as long as both sides have units in the hex.

Units which begin their activation in an assault hex or enter an existing assault hex are not required to assault, and can opt to recover morale, leave the hex, or do nothing (12.3).

Digging-in within assault hexes

A unit is allowed to make attempts to dig-in in an assault hex, provided the unit is not interrupted by becoming demoralized or disrupted, or participates in the assault as the attacker (16.2, 16.21).

Dug-in and entrenched units attacking in assaults

Dug-in and entrenched units which attack in an assault hex do not receive their defensive bonuses (first fire and column modifiers), but their Dug In/Entrenchment markers are not removed. They will again benefit from first fire and column modifiers as defenders if the enemy assaults them in later activations.

Multiple adjacent stacks of combat units and assault

Stacking rules (4.1) still apply in an assault hex, so only three combat units may participate in an assault regardless of how many may be positioned in adjacent hexes ready to enter.

Note: Three armed transport units (APCs) may stack with three combat units, and may therefore combine to assault an enemy in the same hex (4.3).

Reinforcements straight into battle

Units moving on board may directly assault into a hex. This includes cavalry charges attacking two hexes onto the board. Units must still be given a "Fire" activation.

End of the fight

Assaults end immediately when one side is eliminated or all one side units leave the hex. Any activated units that did not participate in the assault are free to conduct other actions per their designated action.

12.12 Exiting a Hex

Active units may exit an assault hex but may only move a single hex when doing so. The hex moved into may not be enemy-occupied (except for unarmed, empty enemy transports and enemy leaders).

If, during a given action segment, ALL of a player's combat units exit an assault hex (leaving no combat units to guard their retreat), then ALL the exiting units (not just the last unit to leave) may be assaulted by the enemy units in the assault hex using the Assault Table. This is a "free shot." The units attacking the exiting units do not have to activate, don't have a "MOVED/FIRED" marker placed on them when they fire, and can fire even if they have a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on them already. The firing units attack all the exiting units as a group on one dieroll, and no negative column modifiers apply (positive column modifiers apply normally). The exiting units may not return fire.

AT fire against exiting units

The "free shot" against exiting enemy units is conducted as an assault, on the Assault Table. Units with AT values may use their Direct Fire values in the assault, but may not use AT fire against the exiting units.

Note that late war infantry units with short range AT must be activated in order to use it. Therefore, they may not use their short range AT in addition to the "free shot."

12.13 Morale Restrictions

Disrupted units may NOT enter hexes containing enemy combat units, but may assault enemy units which are already in the hex they occupy. Demoralized units may NOT enter an assault hex or assault units in a hex they already occupy. They may defend against assaulting units at one-quarter of their normal direct fire strength.

If demoralized units start their activation in an assault hex, they must try to recover morale. If they fail they must exit the hex (moving only one hex rather than their maximum movement rate), and may suffer a "free shot" from the enemy units there if no friendly units remain in the hex when they leave (12.12). If all adjacent hexes contain enemy units (other than unarmed, empty transports and leaders), the demoralized units are eliminated.

12.2 Required Combat

Assault combat must be resolved immediately when active units enter a hex containing enemy units and no friendly units. Resolve the assault after all active units which are to enter the assault hex this action segment have finished entering the hex.

All units of both sides in the hex must participate.

12.3 Optional Combat

If an activated unit enters a hex which was already occupied by friendly and enemy units at the start of the moving unit's action segment, or if the turn begins with both sides' units in an assault hex, then the active player may choose whether or not to attack with those units this turn.

If he attacks, any units that moved into the hex this turn, plus any undemoralized friendly units and leaders that began the turn in the assault hex and have not activated this turn, may attack if desired. Not all units must attack. However, all enemy units in the hex defend as one combined strength.

New units entering assault hexes

Note 1: Units entering an assault hex may attack with undemoralized units already there, as long as the units in the assault hex have not previously activated in the current turn.

Example 1: A tank unit with a tank leader is adjacent to an assault hex containing two infantry units (not previously activated). The tank leader may activate the tank to enter the assault hex and conduct an assault along with the infantry units.

Note 2: Units must be activated by an appropriate leader in order to enter the assault hex.

Example 2: A leaderless tank unit and a leaderless infantry unit are adjacent to an assault hex containing an infantry unit and a good-order leader. The leader in the assault hex may "call" (activate) the adjacent infantry unit to enter the assault hex and conduct an assault with both infantry units, but he may not activate the tank to enter the assault hex.

Lone leader assault

Lone leaders entering an existing assault hex cannot initiate assault combat.

12.4 Procedure

Each player totals the direct fire values of all his units in the hex, applying any penalties due to disruption (14.2) and demoralization (14.3), and adding the combat bonuses of any eligible leaders present (6.42).

Each player finds the column on the assault table whose value either equals or does not exceed his total modified direct fire value in the hex. Apply any column modifiers (there are no maximums or minimums). Then each player rolls one die and cross-references the result with the column arrived at.

Implement combat results simultaneously (EXCEPTION: First Fire, 12.43). Note that defending units do not have to activate to fire, and are not marked with a "MOVED/FIRED" marker at that time.

Attacker and defender in assault hexes

The side that is currently activated in an assault hex is the attacker and receives all the bonuses and penalties that apply to the attacker in the assault table. The side that is not activated is the defender.

Example: Side A moves into a town and assaults Side B. Side A has a -2 column modifier for assaulting in a town, and Side B (as defender) does not. Later during its activation, Side B counter-assaults Side A in the same hex. Side B now suffers the -2 column modifier.

Infantry versus tanks in assaults

Infantry assaulting tanks use the assault tables and normal assault rules. Armor gives no protection on the Assault Table (for example, M = Morale Check for all assault targets including all AFVs, 7.25). Infantry do not have to have AT values to assault tanks.

Example: Three infantry platoons with a leader assault three tanks in a town. The infantry has a -2 column modifier for assaulting in a town, a +1 modifier for the leader, and a +1 for assault against enemy AFV(s) in town or woods without enemy infantry of any kind present. Thus the infantry would assault with zero net column modifiers. If the combat result was "1", one tank would suffer a step loss and all the tanks would undergo an M2 morale check.

12.41 Column Modifiers

Negative column modifiers for town or woods terrain only apply to the fire of whichever side is currently the attacker in the assault. So, if the Axis player activates units in an assault hex with town terrain, his units suffer the -2 column modifier when firing, but the defending Allied units do not.

Negative column modifiers for dug-in (16.2) units only benefit defending units which are actually dug-in. Negative column modifiers for entrenchments only benefit defending units which occupied the entrenchments before the enemy units entered the hex.

Leaders/Transports and assault column modifiers

Only combat units (units possessing a direct fire, bombardment fire or anti-tank fire value)are considered units for column shift modifiers. Leaders and unarmed transports do not count for modifiers such as +1 if all enemy units are demoralized or +1 if all units of attacking side have higher morale than all defending units.

Minimum column for assault

When applying column modifiers, no attack on any table is ever reduced below the lowest column on the table.

Multiple leaders participating in an assault

Multiple leaders may participate in assaults. Each provides its combat bonus to one unit in the assault (6.42), but the column modifier for undemoralized leaders participating in assault remains +1. The presence of additional friendly leaders does not yield additional column shifts (6.43).

12.42 Minimum Strength

Each unit that has no direct fire factor (except unarmed transports) has an assault combat strength of 1. Leaders have no assault strength, but may add their combat modifier to the fire strength of any one unit in the hex (6.42), and add a +1 column modifier as well.

Gun crews fight to the end

Limbered guns and mortars are not "harmless" units and have a defense of 1.

Lone Trucks

Loaded or unloaded trucks in a hex without unloaded combat units are eliminated when assaulted.

12.43 First Fire

When conducting an assault against dug-in or entrenched enemy units, the defending units occupying those fortifications resolve their fire first. The attacker suffers any combat results the defender rolls (step losses and morale checks) before he can attack. Only units that survive the defenders' first fire without becoming demoralized can attack.

If the hex contains defending units that are dug-in/entrenched AND defending units which are not, the defending player may choose to take First Fire with only the units in the fortifications (the others don't fire), OR use all his units and resolve the assault simultaneously with the attacker.

First Fire restrictions

First fire for all dug-in, entrenched and jungle hexes continues in multiple rounds of assault combat. If the defending units attack during an activation they do not benefit from first fire.

Note - The follow line is believed to be incorrect and will be removed once the source is tracked down. *****First fire is restricted to just the first round in assaults on elevation hexes from hexes lower than the elevation hex.*****

First Fire inflicted demoralizations

Units which are demoralized by First Fire may not participate in the assault. They remain in the assault hex, but their activation is finished for the current turn.

12.5 Restrictions
12.51 Leaders

Only leaders in an assault hex may influence units there. Leaders in adjacent hexes may not. Leaders in the assault hex may direct units in adjacent hexes to enter the assault hex, but may not influence them in any other way if they don't enter the assault hex.

12.52 Fire Types In an Assault Hex

Units in an assault hex may not fire on targets outside the hex. They may not fire on the direct fire or bombardment tables. They may conduct AT fire attacks, but only against enemy vehicles in the same hex with them (there is no dieroll modifier for this).

Units in an assault hex may not conduct opportunity fire against enemy units entering the hex to initiate or reinforce an assault (EXCEPTION: Cavalry Charge, 15.31).

12.53 Firing Into an Assault Hex

Units outside an assault hex may not fire into it with direct fire. They may fire into it with bombardment fire, in which case the firing player rolls two attacks on the Bombardment Table - one on the enemy units there, and one on his own units. Calculate column modifiers separately for each attack; when determining the number of units in the hex, count only the combat units of the side being attacked on that roll. A player may fire into an assault hex with AT fire only if his side has no vehicles there.

12.54 Unit Types

Halve the direct fire values of HMG and anti-aircraft units moving into a hex to initiate an assault, unless at least one friendly infantry-type unit that is not an HMG also participates in the assault.

Initiating the attack

Halving of HMG/AA units happens any time they are the attacker in a assault hex without infantry support

13.0 Opportunity Fire

Inactive units which have not yet activated this turn may use their direct fire or AT fire values to attack individual, spotted, moving enemy units within range. Each eligible unit using direct fire may conduct up to two opportunity fires per turn. Multiple units may combine direct fire normally on a moving unit (7.33). AFVs with Armor Efficiency (11.2) may conduct up to two AT opportunity fires per turn. Other units with AT fire values may conduct one AT opportunity fire per turn. Units with both direct and AT fire values may use either type of fire in the same turn as opportunity fire, but not both. Units which can take opportunity fire twice per turn do not have to target the same unit both times.

Armor Efficiency and Opportunity/Activation Fire

An AFV with armor efficiency can take two AT opportunity shots OR two normal AT shots in a single turn, but can't take one of each.

Leaders and Opportunity Fire

Leaders may add their combat bonuses to units conducting Opportunity Fire. They may also enable units conducting Opportunity Fire from different hexes to combine fire (7.33). If the units involved can conduct two Opportunity Fires per turn, the leader can add their combat bonuses and enable the units to combine fire in both.

Leaders that assist in Opportunity Fire are marked with Moved/Fired markers along with the units they assist, and may not activate during the current turn (13.1).

13.1 Procedure

The inactive player designates the firing unit(s) during the target unit’s movement. Resolve the attack using the direct or anti- tank fire procedure.

If a unit can conduct opportunity fire twice per turn (13.0), the firing player should place two “MOVED/ FIRED” markers on it the first time it uses opportunity fire, and remove the second marker the second time it uses opportu- nity fire. This indicates that it may not fire again or activate this turn.

In the case of AT fire by units which can use AT fire only once per turn, place a “MOVED/FIRED” marker on the unit after it fires once to indicate that it can’t fire again or activate this turn.

Opportunity Fire and Activation

A unit cannot activate to Direct Fire and then use Opportunity Fire, or vice-versa, in the same turn.

Other units in hexes under opportunity fire

Other units in the same hex as a unit targeted by opportunity fire are not affected (7.44).

13.11

A moving unit may be attacked in any hex(es) within enemy range that it enters along its movement path. During its movement, the inactive player must tell the moving player to stop moving it momentarily so that he or she can conduct opportunity fire. Fire must be resolved before the unit enters a new hex. The firing player may not wait to see where the unit will end its movement before announcing opportunity fire.

Opportunity fire on leaders moving with units

If a leader is moving with a unit that takes opportunity fire, the results affect BOTH the combat unit and the leader.

Actions immune to opportunity fire

A unit must enter a new hex in order to trigger opportunity fire. Units loading/unloading, limbering/unlimbering, attempting to recover morale, or digging-in do not trigger opportunity fire.

What terrain affects OP fire?

Terrain effects are applied for the hex that the unit is entering.

13.12

The +1 column modifier against a hex containing 3 enemy combat units does not apply to opportunity fire, because only the individual moving unit is affected.

13.13

A moving unit forced to check morale by opportunity fire may be assisted by a good-order leader moving with it (6.3), or by a non-moving good-order leader who is in the same or an adjacent hex at the time the unit is forced to check morale.

13.14

A moving unit that fails a morale check (14.1) stops moving immediately. A unit that suffers a step loss (7.6) but does not fail a morale check may continue moving.

13.2 Restrictions
13.21

In a given action segment, a moving unit may only be attacked once in a particular hex by the same enemy unit. Multiple units may fire at the moving unit when it enters the hex, but each firing unit that could fire twice at the moving unit may not fire at it a second time unless and until it enters a new hex. If it doesn't enter a new hex, then they may take their second opportunity fire at another enemy unit that moves within range.

Example: A Soviet cavalry unit moves within range of two Finnish infantry platoons occupying the same hex. In the first hex the Soviet unit enters, the Finnish units may conduct opportunity fire against it (either as two individual attacks or one combined attack). The Finnish units may not make a second opportunity fire attack on that Soviet cavalry unit unless it enters another spotted hex within range.

13.22

Multiple units may perform opportunity fire attacks in any order desired. Opportunity fires are designated one at a time, allowing a player to see how one turns out before performing another.

13.23

Disrupted units conduct opportunity fire at half strength (14.2). Demoralized units may not conduct opportunity fire (14.3).

13.24

Opportunity fire may not be conducted against units in assault hexes or entering an assault hex (EXCEPTION: Cavalry Charge, 15.31).

14.0 Morale

All units and leaders have morale values. Each leader's morale value is printed on his playing piece - it's the big number in the center. Other units have one morale value when they're full-strength and another when they're at reduced-strength. These values are specified in the scenario instructions (the number before the slash is full-strength morale, the number after the slash is reduced strength morale).

14.1 Morale Checks

When a combat result requires a morale check, the owning player rolls two dice for each affected unit and/or leader and adds any applicable modifier to the dieroll (for example, a combat result of M2 adds two to the dieroll). If the modified result is less than or equal to the unit's or leader's morale (as modified by leader bonuses), the morale check succeeds and the unit or leader is not affected. If the result is greater than the unit or leader's morale by one or two, it fails and becomes disrupted (14.2). If the result is greater than the unit or leader's morale by 3 or more, it fails and becomes demoralized (14.3).

Example: Two French INF units plus a leader are forced to check morale (M, no additional penalty). The leader has a morale of 9 with a morale modifier of 1, and the INF units have a morale of 8. First, the French player rolls a 7 for the leader, who passes his morale check. He adds the leader's morale modifier of 1 to the morale of the INF units, giving them morales of 9. He rolls a 10 for the first unit, meaning it is disrupted. He then rolls a 12 for the second unit. Since the unit failed by 3, it is demoralized.

14.11 Compound Morale Failure

A leader or unit that is already disrupted and fails another morale check becomes demoralized. A demoralized leader or unit that is again demoralized (by failing another morale check by 3 or more) suffers a step loss if it is a unit, and is eliminated if it is a leader. There is no extra effect on a demoralized leader or unit that fails a morale check by 2 or less.

Passing morale checks

Only a successful recovery attempt can improve the morale status of a unit, leader or transport.

14.12 "After you, Sir!"

Roll morale checks for leaders first, before units, in order or seniority. Leader morale failures apply immediately, so if a leader becomes demoralized he can't add his morale modifier to other units this segment.

14.2 Disruption

A disrupted unit or leader:

  • Has all its combat strengths halved.

  • May move only one hex per turn.

  • Can't enter enemy-occupied hexes.

14.3 Demoralization

A demoralized unit or leader:

  • May not conduct any type of fire, except defending against assault. It does so at one-quarter its normal direct fire value.

  • Has its morale reduced by one.

  • Must attempt to recover morale (14.4) on its activation.

  • If it fails to recover, it must flee (14.31) from enemy combat units that can spot it, have range on it and are capable of obtaining a combat result on it through direct or AT fire (EXCEPTION: 14.33). So for example, a demoralized AFV is not required to flee from an enemy INF unit. Mark the unit as "MOVED/FIRED" once it finishes fleeing for the turn.

14.31 Fleeing

Each demoralized unit and/or leader that fails to recover must move away from enemy units that could hurt it. It must move toward the nearest town, woods or other hex where enemy units can no longer spot it and/or fire on it with Direct or AT fire (whichever of the two fire types could hurt it). This is called a "safe hex."

It must spend its entire movement allowance in moving away from enemy units toward the closest safe hex (it may choose between equidistant safe hexes). It must attempt to reach the closest safe hex as soon as possible, subject to the restrictions above (always move away and move at maximum rate).

EXCEPTION: A demoralized leader or unit in a hex containing an entrenchment is not required to flee, but may do so if desired (14.35).

If the fleeing unit or leader cannot reach a safe hex on the first turn, and if it fails to recover on future turns, then it must keep fleeing at maximum movement rate toward the closest safe hex until it occupies it.

Fleeing leaders

Leaders are not required to flee with demoralized units that fail recovery and are forced to flee. Disrupted leaders must change status to demoralized should they choose to flee with the unit. Good order leaders do not change. (6.53)

Fleeing tanks

Because they are vulnerable to normal attacks during assaults, demoralized tanks must flee from assault hexes even if all enemy units are infantry with no AT capability.

However, in such a case, once outside the assault hex, if the demoralized tanks failed subsequent rally attempts they would no longer need to flee, since the infantry's direct fire would no longer be a threat.

And / Or clarification

Whenever I see an "and/or" I read it twice, once with "and" and once
with "or".

So rereading it my way we see

 * ...where enemy units can no longer spot it and fire on it with  

Direct or AT fire...

as well as

 * ...where enemy units can no longer spot it or fire on it with  

Direct or AT fire...

The first sentence is pretty obvious--an enemy sees the fleeing unit
and can fire on it with DF/AT. The second is less obvious, a unit can no longer
spot it or fire on it.

A unit that cannot see a unit, cannot therefore fire on the unit, so if the fleeing unit goes into limiting terrain and cannot be seen beyond 3 hexes and the nearest unit is 4 hexes away, it therefore cannot be seen so cannot be fired upon. Therefore it would be safe.

Additionally, if a unit were within the 3 hexes but have insufficient weapon range to fire on the target, such as a Flamethrower, it would still be unsafe because they can be spotted. The sentence says “can no longer spot it or fire upon it”. A mortar unit, that does not have a DF ability would similarly make the hex unsafe even though it cannot use DF against the target as long as it can spot the hex.

A unit using DF must ALWAYS have an LOS and LOF to the target. The only attack where the firer can rely upon someone else to spot the target is Bombardment.

14.32 Going to Ground

Once a fleeing demoralized unit reaches a safe hex, it must stop moving and remain in the safe hex until it recovers. If enemy units move so that they can spot the demoralized unit and hit it with AT or direct fire that could hurt it, and if the unit fails to recover when activated, then it must flee again to a new safe hex.

14.33

Fleeing demoralized units and leaders may only enter hexes farther away from enemy units capable of harming them with AT or direct fire. If this is not possible, they may enter hexes at an equal distance from such enemy units. If this is also not possible, they must remain in place.

14.34

If a demoralized weapon unit with a movement allowance of 0 fails a recovery attempt and must flee, it is eliminated (the crew abandons the weapon).

14.35

Demoralized units in an assault hex that fail morale must exit the hex, and may move only one hex when doing so (12.13). On later activations they flee at full movement rate if they fail to recover.

14.4 Recovery

Players may attempt to improve the morale status of their demoralized and disrupted units. This is called "recovery." Units may recover with the assistance of an activated leader, or on their own. Units attempting recovery and leaders assisting them must be activated and may conduct no other action that turn. Place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on any unit that attempts recovery (whether it is successful or not), and any leader who assists a recovery attempt. A leader may not move in the same action segment in which he assists a recovery attempt, except to accompany a fleeing demoralized unit that fails to recover (6.52).

Leader recovery

A disrupted leader may recover and assist recovery in the same activation (in the same hex). A demoralized leader may not.

14.41 Procedure

Determine the morale of units attempting recovery. Add the morale modifier of any one activated leader assisting the recovery attempt, plus any bonus for terrain or entrenchments (14.45). Roll two dice. On a result LESS THAN the modified unit morale, it recovers. A demoralized unit that recovers becomes disrupted; a disrupted unit that recovers returns to good-order.

14.42 Required Recovery

Every demoralized unit must attempt recovery at some point during the course of a turn (owning player chooses when). Thus, a player may not "pass" if he has demoralized units that haven't activated this turn - they must try to recover.

14.43 Automatic Full Recovery

A demoralized unit or leader immediately returns to good-order (skipping disruption) on an unmodified recovery result of 2.

14.44 Leader Desertion

A demoralized leader is immediately removed from play on an unmodified recovery result of 12.

Losing the field commander

Decapitation (6.72) and Catastrophic Loss (6.73) apply to leaders that desert.

14.45 Recovery Bonuses

Add one to the morale of units attempting recovery in an entrenchment or town hex.

15.0 Special Unit Types

Special unit types appear in some scenarios but not others. Use only the rules that apply to special unit types appearing in the scenario played.

15.1 Aircraft

Aircraft sometimes appear in scenario special rules, or through Random Events (17.5). Each aircraft piece is double-sided, and each side represents a different air unit. Aircraft fire values are printed on the pieces. All aircraft have Direct Fire values unless the piece or scenario instructions state otherwise.

During a turn in which a player receives aircraft, he places all his side's aircraft pieces in a cup and randomly draws out the number of pieces specified in the scenario rules. He then flips the pieces drawn (like coins) to determine which side of each piece to use that turn.

15.11 Air Attack

Aircraft may attack any hexes on the board. Each aircraft may attack one hex per turn. The owning player selects the target hexes and places at least one aircraft in each target hex. Up to three aircraft may be placed in a single hex per segment. He or she then rolls one die for each aircraft. On a result of 1 or 2, the aircraft misses the hex, is removed from the board and cannot attack this turn. On a result of 3 through 6 it attacks the hex. Ground units and offboard artillery may take no actions during an action segment when one or more air attacks are performed.

Spotting by aircraft

Aircraft can spot all units, even in limited terrain.

15.12 Friendly Fire

If an aircraft misses the hex, use the friendly fire procedure (9.5) to determine if any adjacent friendly units are hit. Use the Bombardment table instead of the Direct Fire table in this case.

15.13 Damage

For each hex hit by aircraft, total the fire values of all aircraft hitting the hex, apply column modifiers, roll two dice and consult the Direct Fire table. Once the air attack is complete, remove the aircraft pieces from the board.

Up is not "adjacent"

Aircraft do not receive the +2 column shift for attacking adjacent units.

Wishful thinking

Aircraft may not use opportunity fire (i.e., attack moving units during the enemy's activation segment).

Aircraft versus AFVs

The numbers in black circles found on some aircraft are anti-tank factors. Roll 1d6 for each factor, on a roll of 6 an AFV present in the hex suffers a step loss. Certain games/modules have their own special rules for air anti-tank attacks.

15.14 Anti-Aircraft

Apply a -1 column modifier to the air attack if an undemoralized enemy anti-aircraft unit is within three hexes of the target hex. Aircraft never take losses from AA fire.

"I wasn't ready!"

Only unlimbered AA guns can generate the -1 column shift.

Mulitple AA guns within range

Regardless of the total number of enemy AA guns within range, the air attack may only suffer a -1 column shift.

15.2 Armored Trains and River Vessels

Armored Trains and River Vessels all have leaders for movement purposes, but these leaders may not activate other units or spot for artillery. They are treated as AFVs for combat purposes and may be destroyed by anti-tank fire. Enemy units may assault (12.0) armored trains normally, but river vessels may only be assaulted by enemy river vessels. Enemy ground units (including engineers) may not enter a major river hex that contains a river vessel.

Armored trains and river vessels may move and fire in the same action segment, moving first and then firing. If they conduct opportunity fire, they may still move. Place 3 "MOVED/FIRED" markers on such units after they've conducted opportunity fire to show they can still move. Remove the extra two markers after the unit is done moving.

15.21 Armored Trains

An armored train may only enter railroad track hexes (as designated by scenario special rules). Its movement allowance is 6.

15.22 River Vessels

A river vessel may only enter major river hexes. It has a movement allowance of 5.

15.3 Cavalry
15.31 Cavalry Charge

Cavalry units activated by a Cavalry Leader may conduct assault movement (12.1) from two hexes away. This is a "cavalry charge," and gives the cavalry a +1 column shift on the assault table. If the cavalry begins its activation adjacent to the target enemy units, it may not charge. It may attack with whatever fire value it has, or conduct a normal assault.

Inactive units may conduct opportunity fire against charging cavalry in the first hex they enter, before they enter the assault hex. Units being charged may not do this if other enemy units are already in their hex at the time of the charge.

Chasing ghosts

The target hex for the charge must be spotted by the charging unit. The charge must travel along the hexes used to spot the target.

15.32 Horse Trailers

Cavalry may not be transported.

16.0 Special Rules
16.1 Smoke

In some scenarios players may fire smoke. Only mortars, onboard artillery units and offboard artillery factors can fire smoke. A unit or offboard artillery factor firing smoke may not fire again in the same turn (place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on it, or make a note if its an offboard artillery factor).

16.11 Procedure

For each unit or offboard artillery factor firing smoke, the owning player designates a spotted target hex within range and rolls two dice. On a result of 8 or less the firing player places a smoke marker in the target hex. On any other result he doesn't.

16.12 Effects

Smoke markers block line of sight. A hex with a smoke marker in it becomes "limiting terrain" (8.2).

16.13 Dispersal and Drift

LOS Diagram

During the marker removal phase, a player with smoke markers on the board rolls one die for each smoke marker to see if it remains in play. On a result of 1 the smoke marker stays in place. On a result of 2 it moves to one of the adjacent hexes. Roll a second time, consult the diagram above, and place it in the hex corresponding to the result. If "North" does not lie where indicated, players must agree on hex alignment before rolling. On a result of 3 through 6 the smoke marker is removed.

16.2 Digging In

Activated, undemoralized units may "dig in" at any hex except a town, woods or entrenchment hex. It takes two full action segments for a unit to dig in. Place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on a unit during each segment that it digs in. Digging in costs all of a unit's movement allowance and counts as its activation. Place a Dug In marker under the unit at the end of the first action segment and on top of it at the end of the second action segment of digging in. After a Dug In marker is placed on a unit, it gains all the benefits of being dug in (defensive column modifiers, First Fire in assault, 12.43, 12.41).

Dug-in leaders
  • Leaders assume the dug-in status of the combat unit they are stacked with. Leaders may retain the dug-in status if the combat unit that the leader is stacked with is destroyed.

  • Leaders can dig in on their own.

  • Leaders that are dug in by themselves may not transfer this status to other combat units.

16.21

If, after the first segment of digging in but before the second, the unit is interrupted by becoming demoralized or disrupted, firing on enemy units, participating in an assault as the attacker, or moving, the Dug In marker is removed. The two-turn process must begin anew in a future action segment.

16.22

The Dug In column modifiers apply only to those units in a target hex which are actually dug-in. If the target hex contains both units which are and are not dug-in, resolve the attack on two different columns per rule 7.52.

NOTE: Leaders are always considered dug in if any friendly units in their hex are dug in.

16.23

Cavalry and transports can't dig in.

16.24

Remove the Dug In marker from the map if all dug-in units exit the hex.

16.25

Dug-In status is not transferable to other units. Each unit must dig itself in to gain the benefits.

16.3 Wrecks

When an AFV step is eliminated in a bridge or town hex, place a wreck marker there. Moving a vehicle into a hex with one wreck costs an additional 1 MP. Two wrecks in a hex cost vehicles an additional 5 MPs to enter. No vehicle may enter a hex with three wrecks.

An AFV unit with an armor value of 2 or more may clear one wreck. The AFV must spend two consecutive turns in the hex without moving or firing. The AFV must be in good order and activated each turn to clear the wreck; place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on it each turn. If the wreck-clearing unit is interrupted in any way (16.21) the two-turn process must start again in a future action segment.

Third wreck with AFVs already in the hex

If you are in a hex with 2 wrecks and you create a third through AT fire or assault, you can still push the wrecks out via the above rule, and/or exit the hex per regular rules. You just can't enter any hex with 3 wrecks.

16.4 Entrenchments

Entrenchment markers give units column modifiers against direct and bombardment fire and give defending units first fire in assault combat (12.41, 12.43). Entrenchments are placed at the beginning of a game and may not be constructed during a scenario.

16.41

Entrenchments are not removed if the occupying units leave the hex. New units of either side may occupy them and gain their defensive bonuses.

16.42

AFVs, cavalry and transport units may enter a hex with an entrenchment marker, but receive no benefit from it.

16.5 Entering and Exiting the Board

Units may enter or exit the game board as directed by the scenario instructions.

16.51 Entering the Board

Units that enter the board during the course of a scenario should be set up offboard using normal stacking limits. When the units are scheduled to enter, group them around leaders as though they were on the board, and activate them normally. Move them onto the board, counting the first hex entered as their first MP(s) spent.

Reinforcements straight into battle

Units moving on board may directly assault into a hex. This includes cavalry charges attacking two hexes onto the board. Units must still be given a "Fire" activation.

16.52 Exiting the Board

No unit may exit the board unless scenario instructions permit. Units exiting the board may not re-enter play, but are not counted as destroyed unless scenario instructions say otherwise. Those that would be forced to exit but cannot (like fleeing demoralized units in a scenario that doesn't allow units to exit) remain in the board-edge hex.

16.53 Not the Edge of the World

If all designated board-entry or -exit hexes are occupied by enemy units, the active player may enter/exit his units in other hexes that are adjacent to the enemy-occupied hexes. In this case, the turn of entry for the units is pushed back by one turn.

16.6 Hidden Units

In some scenarios, units begin play hidden. Some scenario books have special rules regarding hidden units. Barring any such special rules, the rules in this section govern hidden units.

Players write down the location of hidden units rather than placing them on the board. Spotting range for enemy units trying to locate hidden units is reduced to 1/4 normal range (minimum of 1 hex). Thus a hidden unit in clear terrain in daylight could only be spotted by a unit 3 or fewer hexes away, and a hidden unit in a town hex could only be spotted by an adjacent unit.

A hidden unit loses its special status and must be placed on the board if an enemy unit is able to spot it, or if it moves or conducts any type of fire.

16.7 Minefields

Some scenarios include minefields. Minefields can be 1, 2 or 3 points in strength, or they may be dummies. Unless scenario instructions say otherwise, a player whose side has minefields places all minefield pieces in a cup and randomly draws out the number of minefields the scenario allots him. He may then look at them to determine their strengths, and then places them face-down on the board in locations allowed by scenario instructions, leaving only the side not showing a number or "dummy" designation visible.

16.71 Effects

When a unit enters a hex containing one or more minefields, turn the markers to the numbered side. The owning player rolls a corresponding number of dice for each unit which entered the hex. On each result of 6 the unit loses a step, becomes demoralized, and must stop moving. On each result of 5 the unit becomes demoralized and must stop moving. On each result of 3 through 6, the unit must simply stop moving. On each result of 1 or 2 there is no effect. Stopped units may move out of the hex next turn (including fleeing if they don't recover from demoralization, 14.31).

16.72 Multiple Hits

Two or more 6's rolled against a full-strength two-step unit eliminate it. Every two 5's rolled against one unit cause one step loss due to compound demoralization (14.12).

16.73 Engineers

If an engineer (ENG) unit is among those entering the hex, or if an ENG unit is already in a minefield hex entered by other units, then reduce the number of dice rolled against each unit by one. If the only unit(s) to enter the hex are ENGs, reduce the number of dice rolled against each unit by two. If the number of dice rolled is reduced to zero due to ENGs present, units entering the minefield can ignore it.

Demoralized engineers

Demoralized engineers cannot reduce the dice rolls.

16.74 Revealing Dummy Minefields

Dummy minefield markers are removed when revealed.

16.75 Clearing Minefields

Remove one enemy minefield strength point from a hex (minefield-owning playe's choice if multiple minefields are in the hex) if a friendly ENG unit remains there for three complete turns without interruption (16.21). If two ENGs do this, remove two points every three turns. ENGs may thus eliminate all minefields from a hex if they stay there long enough.

17.0 Optional Rules
17.1 Consolidation

A player may combine two reduced units of the same type, nationality and morale condition to form a single full-strength unit. Both units must start their activation in the same hex and spend all their MPs to combine. Remove one of the units, flip the other to its full-strength side, and place a "MOVED/FIRED" marker on it.

17.2 Excess Initiative

If a player wins initiative (3.0) by enough to take three or more action segments before his or her opponent can take one, he may "save" one action segment and use it any time during the turn to perform two consecutive action segments.

17.3 Strategic Movement

Units out of line of sight of enemy units may move at twice their normal movement allowance. Hidden units (16.6) may attack such units with opportunity fire with a +2 direct fire column modifier or a +2 AT fire dieroll bonus.

17.4 Fog of War

After both players have conducted three activation segments each, then each player rolls three dice at the end of each of his subsequent activation segments. If he rolls 16 or more, the turn ends immediately for both players, and nobody may take any further actions that turn (including recovering morale for unactivated demoralized units). Proceed to the next turn. Add a +1 modifier to the Fog of War dieroll on night turns.

17.5 Random Events

Some games in this series include Random Events Tables. During the Initiative Determination Phase, if both players roll the same unmodified number on their initiative dieroll, a random event may take place. Players roll again to see who wins initiative, and then each player rolls another die to determine the random event for the turn. Add the results together and consult the Random Events Table in the scenario book.

17.6 Multi-Player Rules

Panzer Grenadier may be played by more than one player per side. There are two ways to do this.

17.61 Sector Command

This is the preferred option for larger multiplayer games. At the start of the game, the players divide the board into sectors. Sectors can be divided board-by-board, or in any other manner agreed on. Each side then assigns a player to be commander for each sector. So, if Board 1 is Sector 1, then Sector 1 will have an Axis Sector Commander and an Allied Sector Commander.

Each turn, the opposing commanders in each sector play against each other, simultaneously with and independently of the other players. When all units in a given sector are done activating, the two sector commanders pause to see if all the other sector commanders are done activating too. When all units in all sectors are done activating, play proceeds to the next turn. This allows each turn of large multiplayer games to proceed quickly, without players waiting for each other to finish actions.

Each sector commander controls all friendly units in his sector, and takes command of friendly units which enter his sector from another sector. Units may not fire at targets outside their own sector, except to initiate or join an assault. This keeps players from interfering with each other's actions. It also simulates real-life limits to communications between sector commands in battlefield conditions.

17.62 Formation Command

This is the preferred method for smaller multiplayer games, or for players who wish to command specific units in battle. Divide all of each side's units and leaders among the side's players in any way desired. Each player will control only those leaders and units he has been assigned, and will control them no matter where they move on the board. Players may wish to refer to the "Background" section of the Scenario Book or scenario orders of battle to construct historically accurate companies and battalions for game play.

Game play proceeds normally, with each side taking one action segment at a time, and the player controlling the activated units moving and fighting with them as he or she wishes. When a player activates his units, he may NOT activate the units of another player.

17.63 Commanding Officer (CO)

Before the start of play, roll a die to see which player on each side will be that side's Commanding Officer (CO). In Sector Command games, the CO is not represented by a leader piece on the board - the player himself is the CO. In Formation Command games, the player who wins the roll to be CO takes control of the highest-ranking leader on his side. If there is more than one leader of the highest rank on a side, designate one of the highest-ranked leaders as having seniority. At the start of each turn, the CO player may discuss battle plans with his sector commanders and give them high-level orders.

In Sector Command games, the CO can tell sector commanders to send their units to different sectors. Also, at the start of each turn he divides-up air units and artillery factors between his sector commanders. Each sector commander may use the air and artillery factors assigned to him that turn normally.

In Formation Command games, the CO player himself has control of offboard artillery and air units, and decides when and where to use them. He also decides which player gets to activate units in each friendly action segment.

17.64 CO Casualties

In Formation Command games, if the highest-ranking leader on a side is killed, the player with the next-highest-ranking surviving leader becomes the new CO. If there is a tie for seniority, the player who controls the most surviving combat unit steps is the new CO (roll a die to resolve ties).